Optimization of Crude Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Oil Bleaching using Zeolite-Fe by Response Surface Methodology

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.48114

Ulfah Anis(1), Ria Millati(2), Chusnul Hidayat(3*)

(1) Agricultural Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bengkulu, Jl. WR Supratman, Kandang Limun, Muara Bangka Hulu, Bengkulu 38371
(2) Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


A carcinogenic 3-monochloropropane 1, 2 diol ester (3-MCPD ester) can be formed during processing crude palm oil (CPO). Chlorine is one of the precursors for the formation of 3-MCPD esters. This study aimed to optimize the bleaching conditions using zeolite-Fe for reducing chlorine concentration by the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and further evaluate the characteristics of the bleached CPO. Factors such as bleaching time, zeolite-Fe concentration, and bleaching temperature were evaluated and further optimized. The results showed that Fe in the modified zeolite-Fe increased about 71.89% compared to natural zeolite. Zeolite-Fe concentration, bleaching time, and bleaching temperature had a significant effect on chlorine adsorption. The optimum bleaching process was obtained at a zeolite-Fe concentration of 5% (w/w) and bleaching temperature of 80 °C for 30 minutes. Bleached CPO had a chlorine concentration of 25 ± 1 ppb, carotenoid of 467.70 ± 13.71 ppm, and a DOBI (Deterioration Of Bleachability Index) value of 2.17 ± 0.01 R.

Keywords


Chlorine; crude palm oil; oil bleaching; zeolite-Fe

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.48114

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