Pengurangan Aflatoksin B (AFB ) dengan Proses Fermentasi Menggunakan Rhizopus Oligosporus MK-1 pada Pembuatan Bumbu Pecel

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9787

Yuliana Tandi Rubak(1*), Endang S. Rahayu(2), Sardjono Sardjono(3)

(1) Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Nusa Cendana, Kupang, Jl. Adisucipto Penfui, Kupang, Nusa Tenggara Timur
(2) Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Jl. Sosio Yustisia, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Jl. Sosio Yustisia, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Aflatoxin B  is the most harmfull mycotoxin for human health because of the toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity 1and mutagencity. Aflatoxin is the common mycotoxin contaminant in grains, nuts and their products such as “bumbupecel”. Bumbu pecel is a kind of spice used for serving vegetable foods called “pecel” which is very popular in In-donesia. Biological reduction of aflatoxin is an important process in order to degrade aflatoxin in foods. The aim of this research was to modify the steps of bumbu pecel production to reduce aflatoxin B  content through fermentation of peanut by Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1. The research was carried out in two steps that were modifying process inbumbu pecel production and sensory test for modified bumbu pecel. Modification process consisted of bean soaking, germ pealing, washing, steaming, fermentation of Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1 and roasting. Aflatoxin analysis was carried out by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay). The result indicated that fermentation process by Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1 reduced 88.95 % aflatoxin B accumulatively in three days fermentation. Aflatoxin reduction 1was greater with the of length fermentation time and correlated with the growth of Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1. Twodays fermentation did not affect the sensory characteristic of bumbu pecel.

ABSTRAK

Aflatoksin B  adalah mikotoksin yang paling berbahaya untuk kesehatan manusia, karena bersifat racun, karsinogenik, teratogenik dan mutagenik. Aflatoksin adalah mikotoksin yang sering mencemari biji-bijian, kacang-kacangandan juga produk biji-bijian maupun kacang-kacangan seperti bumbu pecel. Bumbu pecel adalah bumbu yang digu- nakan bersama sayuran yang biasa disebut “pecel” yang sangat popular di Indonesia. Reduksi biologis aflatoksin adalah proses yang sangat penting untuk menurunkan kandungan aflatoksin selama fermentasi kacang oleh Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1. Penelitian ini terdiri dari 2 tahap yaitu modifikasi proses produksi bumbu pecel dan uji sensoris terhadap bumbu pecel yang telah dimodifikasi. Modifikasi proses meliputi perendaman biji, pengupasan kulit biji, pen- cucian, perebusan, fermentasi Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1 dan penyangraian. Analisis aflatoksin menggunakan ELISA (Enzym Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa proses fermentasi menggunakan Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1 menurunkan kadar aflatoksin B  sekitar 88,95 % selama 3 hari proses fermentasi. Semakin lama proses fermentasi, maka penurunan kadar aflatoksin juga semakin banyak dan berhubungan dengan pertumbuhanRhizopus oligosporus MK-1. Fermentasi selama 2 hari tidak berpengaruh terhadap karakter sensoris bumbu pecel.


Keywords


Aflatoxin B1; peanut; bumbu pecel; fermentation; Rhizopus oligosporus; MK-1

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9787

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Agritech (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


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