Komposisi dan Aktivitas Antibakteri Asap Cair Sabut Kelapa yang Dibuat dengan Teknik Pembakaran Non Pirolisis

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9638

Feti Fatimah(1*)

(1) Jurusan Kimia FMIPA Universitas Sam Ratulangi, Kampus Unsrat, Bahu Manado 95115
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Food preservation by liquid smoke was one of the food conservation techniques that was easy to be conducted.Nonetheless, it was difficult in reality for people to product liquid smoke because of the complicated process in making pirolisis tools. This study was conducted to learn how to make liquid smoke by non pirolisis technique using the basic material of coconut fiber. And then, it must be performed in the liquid smoke, the redistilation and the adsorption process using active carbon. The quality of liquid smoke was examined by observing the components using Gas chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS) and performing test of antibacterial activity to three kinds of bacterias: Salmonella choleraeaeus, Bacillus subtilus, and Staphylococcus aureus using technic of well in the PCA media of 108/ml in population. Based on the study results, it was found that the original liquid smoke (without redistilation and adsorption process using active carbon) consisted at least of 21 components, redistilated liquid smoke consist at least of 31 components, and adsorpted liquid smoke using active carbon consisted at least of 5 components. From the result of test of antibacterial activity, it was found that the redistilated liquid smoke showed better bacterial activity than in the original liquid smoke, whereas the absorpted liquid smoke using active carbon had the smallest activity among them. It was because of the content of the 2-methoxiphenol compound in the redistilated liquid smoke was the highest among them. And based on this phenomena, it was found that redistilation technique could increase the quality of liquid smoke of coconut fiber made by non pirolisis combusting method.

ABSTRAK

Pengawetan menggunakan asap cair merupakan salah satu teknik pengawetan bahan pangan yang mudah diaplikasikan.Meskipun demikian, pada kenyataannya, masyarakat kesulitan memproduksi asap cair dikarenakan sulitnya membuat peralatan pirolisis. Penelitian ini dilakukan guna mengkaji pembuatan asap cair dengan teknik non pirolisis dari bahan dasar sabut kelapa. Selanjutnya pada asap cair yang dihasilkan dengan teknik ini, dilakukan redistilasi dan penyerapan dengan karbonaktif. Kualitas asap cair yang dihasilkan diuji dengan melihat komponen penyusun asap cair dengan kromatografi gas - spektrofotometer massa (GC-MS) serta uji aktivitas antibakteri terhadap 3 jenis bakteri yaitu Salmonella choleraeaeus, Bacillus subtilus dan Staphylococcus aureus menggunakan teknik sumur pada media PCA dengan jumlah populasi 108/ml. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa asap cair asli (tanpa redistilasi dan penyerapan dengan karbon aktif) sedikitnya mengandung 21 komponen, asap cair redistilasi sedikitnya mengandung31 komponen dan asap cair hasil penyerapan dengan karbon aktif mengandung sedikitnya 5 komponen. Dari hasil uji antibakteri diketahui bahwa asap cair hasil redistilasi menunjukkan aktivitas antibakteri yang lebih baik dibandingkan asap cair asli, sedangkan asap cair hasil penyerapan dengan karbon aktif mempunyai aktivitas yang paling kecil dibandingkan keduanya. Hal tersebut dikarenakan kandungan senyawa 2-metoksifenol yang paling tinggi pada asap cair redistilasi dibandingkan keduanya. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, diketahui bahwa teknik redistilasi dapat meningkatkan kualitas asap cair sabut kelapa yang dibuat dengan metode pembakaran non pirolisis.


Keywords


Liquid smoke; non pirolisis; redistilation; adsorption by active carbon; antibacterial activity

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9638

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Agritech (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


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