Pengembangan Gasifier untuk Gasifikasi Limbah Padat Pati Aren (Arenga Pinnata Wurmb)

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9602

Bambang Purwantana(1*)

(1) Jurusan Teknik Pertanian Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Sosio Yustisia, Yogyakarta, 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Sugar palm powder is a raw material for various food products. Solid wastes produced during the powder process- ing have not yet been utilized properly. Gasification of the wastes by converting them into gaseous fuel could be an alternative to solve the waste problem. The objective of this research was to develop downdraft gasifier suitable for solid waste of sugar palm powder. The performance of the gasifier was determined by its temperature distribution, gas composition, gas production, and heat. The result showed that solid waste of sugar palm powder are potential to be used as gasification fuel. The gasification process was optimum at gasifier having greater than 70o tilt angle of pyroly-sis chamber,  180 mm diameter of combustion chamber,  and 200 mm height of reduction chamber, and using air flow rate of 11 m3/h. The performace of the gasification were: (1) average temperature in gasification chamber, combustion chamber, and pyrolysis chamber were 172oC, 353oC, and 135oC, respectively; (2) gas composition of H2, CO, CH4, O2, CO2,  and N2  were 7,4%, 18,1%, 1,5%, 2,7%, 6,8%, and 58,0%, respectively; (3) gas production was18 m /hour; and
(4) heat was 2 MJ/kg.

ABSTRAK

Pada proses pembuatan pati aren dihasilkan limbah berupa serat dan ampas dengan jumlah yang besar. Selama ini limbah  tersebut  belum  dimanfaatkan secara  optimal.  Melalui  penelitian  ini  dikembangkan  suatu  proses  gasifikasi limbah padat pati aren untuk membuat bahan bakar berupa gas. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengembangkan gasifier tipe aliran ke bawah (downdraft gasifier) dengan titik berat pada perancangan ruang pirolisa, pembakaran dan reduksi gas. Kinerja gasifikasi diamati berdasarkan karakteristik distribusi suhu, komposisi gas, kapasitas produksi, dan panas yang dihasilkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan  bahwa  limbah  padat  pati  aren potensial untuk digunakan sebagai bahan baku gasifikasi. Sudut kemiringan hoper ruang pirolisa lebih besar dari 70o  diperlukan untuk efektifitas aliran proses pembakaran dan reduksi. Berdasar hasil percobaan, proses gasifikasi terbaik diperoleh pada dimensi ruang pembakaran berdiameter 180 mm, dan tinggi ruang reduksi 200 mm pada debit udara 11 m3/jam. Pada kondisi disain dan operasional tersebut diperoleh karakteristik gasifikasi sebagai berikut: (1) suhu rerata ruang gasifikasi 172oC, ruang pembakaran 353oC, ruang pirolisis 135oC, (2) komposisi gas H2 7,4%, CO 18,1%, CH4 1,5%, O2 2,7%, CO2 6,8%, dan N  58,0%, (3) produksi gas 18 m3/jam, (4) panas 2 MJ/kg bahan.

Keywords


Gasification; solid waste of sugar palm powder; temperature; heat

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9602

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Agritech (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


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