Optimasi Proses Nanopresipitasi pada Nanoenkapsulasi Ekstrak Kasar Daun Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) Menggunakan Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.49872

Rahma Bayunita Hapsari(1*), Yudi Pranoto(2), Agnes Murdiati(3), Supriyanto Supriyanto(4)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Departemen Teknologi Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No. 1 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Departemen Teknologi Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No. 1 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(4) Departemen Teknologi Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No. 1 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Ekstrak kasar daun kakao mempunyai potensi untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber antioksidan alami. Perlindungan senyawa tersebut dari kerusakan selama penyimpanan dapat dilakukan enkapsulasi. Metode nanopresipitasi merupakan metode yang mudah dan cepat dibandingkan metode lain. Efisiensi enkapsulasi yang tinggi sebagai penentu keberhasilan dari nanopresipitasi dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor diantaranya konsentrasi ekstrak yang ditambahkan dan konsentrasi gelatin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan kondisi optimal proses nanopresipitasi dengan mengoptimasi konsentrasi ekstrak yang ditambahkan (300 ppm, 400 ppm, 500 ppm, 600 ppm dan 700 ppm) dan konsentrasi gelatin (1% ; 1,25% ; 1,5% ; 1,75% dan 2%) dilihat dari parameter efisiensi enkapsulasi menggunakan metode Central Composite Design (CCD) dan Response Surface Methodology (RSM) (p-value < 0,05). Analisis lain yang dilakukan yaitu efisiensi enkapsulasi, distribusi ukuran partikel dan pengamatan profil morfologi. Dari analisis RSM, konsentrasi ekstrak 509,57 ppm dan konsentrasi gelatin 1,57% memberikan hasil yang terbaik dengan efisiensi enkapsulasi nanokapsul sebesar 78,04%. Kondisi optimum nanokapsul juga memberikan hasil ukuran nanokapsul berada dalam kisaran nanometer yaitu sebesar 178,9 nm dan pesebaran nanokapsul merata karena indeks polidispersitas bernilai kurang dari 1 yaitu 0,716. Sedangkan profil morfologi menunjukkan bahwa nanokapsul berbentuk bulat dan utuh.


Keywords


Cocoa leaves crude extract; gelatin; nanoencapsulation; nanoprecipitation; optimization

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.49872

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