Karakteristik Fisikokimia Gelatin Tulang Ikan Patin (Pangasius sutchi) Hasil Ekstraksi Menggunakan Limbah Buah Nanas (Ananas comosus)

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.29821

Yoni Atma(1), Hisworo Ramdhani(2*), Apon Zaenal Mustopa(3), Mega Pertiwi(4), Rizkia Maisarah(5)

(1) Program Studi Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Bioindustri, Universitas Trilogi, Jl. TMP. Kalibata No.1, Kalibata, Jakarta Selatan 12760
(2) Program Studi Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Bioindustri, Universitas Trilogi, Jl. TMP. Kalibata No.1, Kalibata, Jakarta Selatan 12760
(3) Pusat Penelitian Bioteknologi, Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI), Jl. Bogor Km. 46, Cibinong 16911
(4) Program Studi Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Bioindustri, Universitas Trilogi, Jl. TMP. Kalibata No.1, Kalibata, Jakarta Selatan 12760
(5) Program Studi Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Bioindustri, Universitas Trilogi, Jl. TMP. Kalibata No.1, Kalibata, Jakarta Selatan 12760
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Fish bones are the most potential as an alternative source for gelatin production. Pangasius catfish bone is the one of the most promising source due to its high yield of gelatin. It has similar gel strength with the commercial gelatin and has a low ash content. The aim of this research was to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of Pangasius catfish bone gelatin extracted using pineapple waste. Pineapple waste has a low pH and contains citric acid. The research was conducted in two stages i.e. gelatin extraction and physicochemical characterization. Gelatin extraction was done by pre-treatment and main extraction. Pre-treatment was done by soaking the fish bone into pineapple waste for 32, 48, and 56 hours. The main extraction was carried out by soaking fish ossein in warm water for 5 hours at 75 °C.  The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to analyze the gelatin existence. Fish bone gelatin has molecular weight ranging from 100-150 kDa and > 225 kDa. The hydroxyproline content of gelatin was 10.9–16.3 mg/g. Gelatin of Pangasius catfish bone extracted with pineapple waste has gel strength of 64.83 g.bloom g, hardness of 4.96 N, cohesiveness of 0.88, springiness of 1.03 mm, gumminess of 4.36 N, and chewiness of 2.78 N. Viscosity and pH of gelatin solution obtained were 3.17 cP and 4.52 respectively. The proximate characteristics obtained were moisture 8.59%, ash 0.95%, crude protein 47.60% and fat 7.71%. Some physicochemical parameters of gelatin resemble commercial gelatin and other fish bone gelatin.

 

ABSTRAK

Tulang ikan merupakan salah satu sumber alternatif untuk produksi gelatin yang sangat potensial. Gelatin dari tulang ikan patin yang diekstrak dengan asam diketahui memiliki hasil ekstraksi yang tertinggi, kekuatan gel yang menyerupai gelatin komersial dan kadar abu yang rendah. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui karakteristik fisik dan kimiawi gelatin tulang ikan patin yang diekstrak dengan limbah buah nanas. Limbah buah nanas diketahui mengandung asam sitrat cukup tinggi. Penelitian dilakukan dengan dua tahap yakni ekstraksi gelatin dan analisis karakteristik fisikokimianya. Ekstraksi gelatin dilakukan dengan dua tahap yakni pre-treatment dan ekstraksi utama. Pre-treatment dilakukan dengan perendaman tulang ikan dalam limbah buah nanas selama 32, 48, dan 56 jam. Ekstraksi utama dilakukan dengan perendaman dalam air hangat selama 5 jam suhu 75 °C. Analisis keberadaan gelatin dengan metode SDS-PAGE diketahui gelatin berada pada kisaran berat molekul 100–150 kDa dan > 225 kDa. Kadar hidroksiprolin gelatin yakni 10,9–16,3 mg/g. Gelatin tulang ikan patin yang diekstrak dengan limbah buah nanas memiliki kekuatan gel 64,83 g.bloom, kekerasan (hardness) 4,96 g, kohesivitas (cohesiveness) 0,88, elastisitas (springiness) 1,03, kekenyalan (gumminess) 4,36, daya kunyah (chewiness) 2,78. Viskositas dan pH larutan gelatin yang diperoleh masing-masing 3,17 cP dan 4,52. Karakteristik kimiawi gelatin yang diperoleh antara lain meliputi kadar air 8,59%, abu 0,95%, protein kasar 47,60% dan lemak 7,71%. Beberapa karakteristik fisikokimia gelatin tulang ikan pada penelitian ini dapat dibandingkan dengan gelatin komersial dan gelatin tulang ikan yang lain.


Keywords


Extraction; fish bone; gelatin; pineapple waste



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.29821

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