Kinetika Reaksi Penurunan Kafein dan Asam Klorogenat Biji Kopi Robusta melalui Pengukusan Sistem Tertutup

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.26469

Sapto Kuncoro(1*), Lilik Sutiarso(2), Joko Nugroho Wahyu Karyadi(3), Rudiati Evi Masithoh(4)

(1) Jurusan Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Lampung, Jl. Prof. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1, Bandar Lampung 35145
(2) Departemen Teknik Pertanian dan Biosistem, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl, Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Departemen Teknik Pertanian dan Biosistem, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl, Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(4) Departemen Teknik Pertanian dan Biosistem, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl, Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This study was aimed to examine the correlation between temperature and duration of steaming on caffeine and chlorogenic acid reduction as well as to determine energy activation (Ea) according to Arrhenius equation. About 750 g of Robusta coffee was steamed by autoclaving at 100, 110, 120 °C for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 hours. The study was conducted in 3 replications. Analyses of caffeine and chlorogenic acid were performed using HPLC.  Steaming coffee beans at 100, 110 and 120 °C resulted in the highest decrease of caffeine and chlorogenic acids content for 7 hours by 13%, 18% and 25% for caffeine; and by 37%, 50% and 59% for chlorogenic acids. At all temperatures investigated, decaffeination and chlorogenic acid reduction followed first order reaction. The decaffeination equation at 100 °C, 110 °C and  120 °C followed equation of  y = -0.019x + 0.862, y = -0.023x + 0.820, and y = -0.033x + 0.759, respectively. Meanwhile, the chlorogenic acid reduction at 100 °C, 110 °C,  and 120 °C followed equation of y = -0.071x + 1.421, y = -0.089x + 1.271, and y = -0.120x + 1.201. Activation energies of decaffeination and chlorogenic acid reduction were 33,543.66 kJ/mol K and 31,934.91 kJ/mol K, respectively.

 

ABSTRAK

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji hubungan antara suhu dan lama pengukusan terhadap penurunan kandungan kafein dan asam klorogenat serta menentukan energi aktivasi (Ea) dengan pendekatan persamaan Arrhenius. Biji kopi Robusta masing-masing seberat 750 g dikukus dalam autoklaf (sistem tertutup) pada suhu 100, 110, dan 120 °C masing-masing selama 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, dan 7 jam. Penelitian dilakukan dengan 3 kali ulangan. Analisis kafein dan asam klorogenat dilakukan menggunakan HPLC. Pengukusan biji kopi pada suhu 100, 110, dan 120 °C, menghasilkan penurunan kandungan kafein dan asam klorogenat tertinggi pada pengukusan selama 7 jam. Penurunan kandungan kafein selama 7 jam pada suhu pengukusan 100, 110, dan 120 °C berturut-turut 13%, 18%, dan 25%. Kandungan asam klorogenat mengalami penurunan 37%, 50%, dan 59% berturut-turut pada suhu 100, 110, dan 120 °C.  Pada semua suhu yang diuji, penurunan kafein dan asam klorogenat mengikuti reaksi orde satu. Penurunan kafein mengikuti persamaan y = -0,019x + 0,862,  y = -0,023x + 0,820, dan y = -0,033x + 0,759, sedangkan untuk asam klorogenat mengikuti persamaan y = -0,071x + 1,421,  y = -0,089x + 1,271, dan y = -0,120x + 1,201. Besarnya energi aktivasi penurunan kafein dan asam klorogenat berturut turut adalah 33.543,66 kJ/molK dan 31.934,91 kJ/Mok.


Keywords


Activation energy;caffeine;chlorogenic acids



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.26469

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