Kondisi Penyimpanan Kacang Tanah dan Potensi Cemaran Aspergillus flavus pada Pedagang Pengecer Pasar Tradisional di Wilayah Jakarta

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.26113

Widya Eka Prayitno(1*), Harsi Dewantari Kusumaningrum(2), Hanifah Nuryani Lioe(3)

(1) Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Jl. Raya Darmaga, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680
(2) Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Jl. Raya Darmaga, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680
(3) Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Jl. Raya Darmaga, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Factors affecting contamination on peanut kernel marketed in Jakarta has not been investigated yet. The purpose of the research was to investigate and evaluate the storage condition and the behavior of retailers on the way of peanuts storage and also to investigate the presence of Aspergillus flavus infection in the peanuts. The research was conducted at traditional market with 15 peanut retailers as respondents (n=15). The research stages included survey at retailer area including interview, observation, temperature and relative humidity measurements as well as peanuts analysis including moisture content, defective seeds and presence of A. flavus. The results of research revealed that the average temperature of peanut storage area at retail stalls range from 29.6 to 31.2 °C which is not in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) recommendation, while the average of storage room RH ranged between 53.6–73.1% and moisture content of peanuts of 6.23–7.86% were mostly in accordance to CAC recommendation. The percentage of damage, shrivelled and splitted seeds ranged between 3.9–19.1%, 5.4–32.3% and 0.2–8.8%, respectively. The range of mean of total molds and A. flavus were 2.5–5.6 log cfu/g and 1.3–4.0 log cfu/g, respectively. Total molds had a strong correlation to damage kernels (r = 0.74), and had a moderate correlation to the temperature (r = 0.41), moisture content (r = 0.42) and behavior of retailers, especially in cleaning the ceiling (r = 0.44) and placing the storage container (r = 0.44). The presence of A. flavus had a slight correlation to relative humidity on storage (r = 0.26), and had no significant correlation to peanuts damage and all storage conditions.

 

ABSTRAK

Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi cemaran aflatoksin pada biji kacang tanah atau ose di wilayah Jakarta belum pernah dilaporkan. Penelitian ini dilakukan di pasar tradisional dengan 15 pedagang pengecer kacang tanah sebagai responden (n=15). Tujuan penelitian adalah mengidentifikasi dan mengevaluasi kondisi penyimpanan dan perilaku pengecer dalam menyimpan kacang tanah serta mengidentifikasi potensi cemaran Aspergillus flavus pada kacang tanah. Tahap penelitian meliputi survei di area pengecer (wawancara, pengamatan langsung dan pengukuran suhu serta kelembaban relatif (RH) di area penyimpanan) serta analisis kacang tanah (kadar air, biji cacat, dan keberadaan A. flavus). Hasil studi menunjukkan rata-rata kisaran suhu area penyimpanan kacang tanah di kios pengecer berkisar antara 29,6–31,2 °C. Hal ini tidak sesuai dengan rekomendasi Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC), meskipun sebagian besar rata-rata kisaran RH area penyimpanan berkisar antara 53,6–73,1% dan kadar air kacang tanah sebesar 6,23–7,86% yang sesuai dengan rekomendasi CAC. Rata-rata biji rusak, biji keriput dan biji belah ditemukan pada kisaran, berturut-turut, 3,9-19,1%, 5,4–32,3% dan 0,2–8,8%. Rata-rata total kapang dan A. flavus pada sampel kacang tanah, masing-masing, ditemukan berkisar antara 2,5–5,6 log cfu/g dan 1,3–4,0 log cfu/g. Total kapang pada sampel kacang tanah memiliki korelasi positif yang kuat dengan biji rusak (r = 0,74), dan berkorelasi positif pada tingkat sedang dengan suhu (r = 0,41), kadar air (r = 0,42) dan perilaku pengecer dalam pembersihan langit-langit kios (r = 0,44) serta penempatan wadah simpan kacang tanah (r = 0,44). Studi ini menunjukkan bahwa keberadaan A. flavus pada sampel kacang tanah berkorelasi positif lemah dengan kelembaban relatif di area penyimpanan (r = 0,26) dan tidak memiliki korelasi secara signifikan dengan biji rusak maupun semua kondisi penyimpanan lainnya.

 

 


Keywords


Aflatoxin; Aspergillus flavus; peanuts; retailers; traditional market



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.26113

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