Pengaruh Penambahan Asam Galat Sebagai Kopigmen Antosianin Murbei Hitam (Morus nigra L.) terhadap Stabilitas Termal

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.22963

Yoko Putra Nusantara(1), Lydia Ninan Lestario(2*), Yohanes Martono(3)

(1) Program Studi Kimia, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Jl. Diponegoro 52-60, Salatiga 50711
(2) Program Studi Kimia, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Jl. Diponegoro 52-60, Salatiga 50711
(3) Program Studi Kimia, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Jl. Diponegoro 52-60, Salatiga 50711
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The purposes of this research were to determine the effect of copigmentation of mulberry anthocyanin with gallic acid towards thermal and to determine the optimal molar ratio of anthocyanin: gallic acid to stabilize the mulberry anthocyanin. The variation of treatments on this research were molar ratio of mulbery anthocyanin: gallic acid: 1:0; 1:25; 1:50; 1:75; 1:100 which were heated at 60 °C, 70 °C, 80 °C, and 90 °C. After heated, the colour intensity were measured every 45 minutes at 60 °C, 30 minutes at 70 °C, 30 minutes at 80 °C, and 20 minutes at 90 °C. The measurement was conducted on wavelength 512 nm for uncopigmented anthocyanin and 514 nm for copigmented anthocyanin using Spectrophotometer UV-VIS. The result showed that copigmentation could increase the thermal stability of mulberry anthocyanin. Copigmentation could increase the activation energy and half life. The optimal molar ratio of anthocyanin: copigment was 1:75, while the energy of activation was 65.20 kJ/mole.

 

ABSTRAK

Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan efek kopigmentasi antosianin murbei dengan asam galat terhadap panas dan menentukan rasio molar antosianin: asam galat yang optimal untuk menstabilkan antosianin murbei. Variasi perlakuan penelitian ini adalah rasio molar antosianin: asam galat: 1:0; 1:25; 1:50; 1:75; 1:100 yang dipanaskan pada suhu 60 °C, 70 °C, 80 °C, dan 90 °C. Setelah pemanasan selesai, dilakukan pengukuran intensitas warna setiap 45 menit pada suhu 60 °C, 30 menit pada suhu 70 °C, 30 menit pada suhu 80 °C, dan 20 menit pada suhu 90 °C. Pengukuran dilakukan pada panjang gelombang 512 nm pada antosianin yang tidak terkopigmentasi dan 514 nm pada antosianin yang terkopigmentasi dengan menggunakan Spektrofotometer UV-VIS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kopigmentasi meningkatkan stabilitas antosianin murbei terhadap panas. Kopigmentasi dapat meningkatkan energi aktivasi dan waktu paruh. Rasio molar optimal antosianin:asam galat adalah 1:75 dengan energi aktivasi sebesar 65,20 kJ/mol.


Keywords


Anthocyanin; copigmentation; gallic acid; mulberry; stability

Full Text:

PDF


References

Amin, K.A., II, H.A.H. dan Elsttar, A.H.A. (2010). Effect of food azo dyes tartrazine and carmoisine on biochemical parameters related to renal, hepatic function and oxidative stress biomarkers in young male rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48: 2994–2999. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.07.039.
Atkins, P.W. dan Paula, J.D. (2008). Physical Chemistry. 8th ed. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.

Bang, I.S., Yu, C.Y. dan Lim, J.D. (2010). Effects of temperature and UV irradiation on stability of anthocyanin-polyphenol copigment complex in mulberry fruits. Korean Journal Medicinal Crops Science 18(3): 191–200.

Bimpilas, A., Panagoupoulou, M., Tsimogiannis, D. dan Oreopoulou, V. (2016). Anthocyanin copigmentation and color of wine: The effect of naturally obtained hydroxycinnamic acids as cofactors. Food Chemistry 197: 39–46. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.10.095.

Boranbayeva, T., Karadeniz, F. dan Yilmaz, E. (2014). Effect of storage on anthocyanin degradation in black mulberry juice and concentrates. Food Bioprocess 7(7): 1894–1902. doi: 10.1007/s11947-014-1296-8.

Boulton, R. (2001). The copigmentation of anthocyanins and its role in the color of red wine: A critical review. American Journal Enologi Viticera 52(2): 67–85.

Catrien. (2009). Pengaruh Kopigmentasi Pewarna Alami Antosianin dari Rosela (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) dengan Rosmarinic Acid terhadap Stabilitas Warna pada Model Minuman Ringan. Skripsi. Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor, Indonesia.

Eiro, M.J. dan Heinonen, M. (2002). Anthocyanin color behavior and stability during storage: Effect of intermolecular copigmentation. Journal Agricultural Food Chemistry 50: 7461–7466. doi: 10.1021/jf0258306.

Fennema, R. (1996). Food Chemistry. 3th edition. Marcel Dekker, New York.

Ferreira da Silva, P., Lima, J.C., Freitas, A.A., Shimizu, K., Maҫanita, A.L. dan Quina, F.H. (2005). Charge-transfer complexation as a general phenomenon in the copigmentation of anthocyanins.  Journal of Physical Chemistry. A. 109: 7329–7338. doi: 10.1021/jp052106s.

Fischer, U.A., Carle, R., Kammerer, D.R. (2013). Thermal stability of anthocyanins and colourless phenolics in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juices and model solutions. Food Chemistry 138: 1800–1809. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.10.072.

Gauche, C., Malagoli, E.D.S. dan Luiz, M.T.B. (2010). Effect of pH on the copigmentation of anthocyanins from cabernet sauvignon grape extracts with organic acids. Journal Science and Agriculture (Piracicaba, Braz). v.67. n.1. 41-46. doi: 10.1590/S0103-90162010000100006.

González-Manzano, S., Dueñas, M., Rivas-Gonzalo, J.C., Escribano-Bailón, M.T. dan Santos-Buelga, C. (2009). Studies on the copigmentation between anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols and their influence in the colour expression of red wine. Food Chemistry 114: 649–656. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.10.002.

Hajidazeh, S. dan Jamei, R. (2015). Stability of anthocyanin-copigment complex under the effect of copigment concentration in black dezfuly mulberry in sanandaj. Dalam: Second National Conference on Medicinal Plants and Sustainable Agriculture 2015. Iran.

He, J. dan Giusti, M.M. (2010). Anthocyanins: Natural Colorants with Health-Promoting Properties. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology. 1. 163-187. doi: 10.1146/annurev.food.080708.100754.

Hosseini, S., Gharachorloo, M., Ghiassi-Tarzi, B. dan Ghavami, M. (2016). Evaluation of the organic acids ability for extraction of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds from different sources and their degradation kinetics during cold storage. Polish  Journal of Food and Nutrition  Sciences 66(4): 261–269. doi: 10.1515/pjfns-2015-0057.

Kara, S. dan Erҫelibi, E.A. (2013). Thermal degradation kinetics of anthocyanins and visual colour of Urmu mulberry (Morus nigra L.). Journal of Food Engineering 116: 541–547. doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.12.030.

Kokkaew, H. dan Pitirit, T. (2016). Optimization for anthocyanin and antioxidant contents and effects of acidulants on purple corn cake containing corn silk powder qualities. International Food Research Journal 23(6): 2390-2398.

Kopjar, M. dan Pilizota, V. (2009). Copigmentation effect of phenolic compounds on red currant juice anthocyanins during storage. Croatian Journal Food Science Technology 1(2): 16–20.
Lestario, L.N., Yoga, M.K. W.C. dan Kristijanto, A.I. (2014). Stabilitas antosianin jantung pisang kepok (Musa paradisiaca L) terhadap cahaya sebagai pewarna agar-agar. Agritech 34(4): 374–381.

Nugraheni, M. (2014). Pewarna Alami Sumber dan Aplikasinya pada Makanan dan Kesehatan. Graha Ilmu, Yogyakarta.

Özgen, M., Serҫe, S. dan Kaya, C. (2009). Phytochemical and antioxidant properties of anthocyanin-rich Morus nigra and Morus rubra fruits. Scientia Horticulturae 119: 275–279. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2008.08.007.

Ramadan, K.M.A. dan El-Hadidy, E.M. (2015). Color stability of anthocyanin-based extracts in non-traditional sourches: improvement of thermal stability by tannic acid. Journal Biology Chemistry Enviroment Science 10(3): 1-19.

Sari, F. (2015). The copigmentation effect of different phenolic acids on berberies crataegina anthocyanins. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 40: 422–430. doi: 10.1111/jfpp.12619.

Shikov, V., Kammerer, D.R., Mihalev, K., Mollov, P. dan Carle, R. (2008). Heat stability of strawberry anthocyanins in model solutions containing natural copigments extracted from rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) petals. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56: 8521–8526. doi: 10.1021/jf801946g.

Stefănut, M.N., Cată, A., Pop, R., Moşoarcă, C. dan Zamfir, A.D. (2011). Anthocyanins HPLC-DAD and MS Characterization, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity some berries extract. Analytical Letters: 44: 2843–2855. doi: 10.1080/00032719.2011.582550.

Suh, H.J., Noh, D.O., Kang, C.S., Kim, J.M. dan Lee, S.W. (2003). Thermal kinetics of color degradation of mulberry fruit extract. Molecular Nutrition Food Research 47(2): 132–135. doi: 10.1002/food.200390024.

Tensiska, E., Sukarminah dan Natalia, D. (2007). Ekstraksi pewarna alami dari buah arben (Rubus idaeus Linn.) dan aplikasinya pada sistem pangan. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan 18(1): 25–31.

Trouillas, P., Sancho-Garcia, J.C., Freitas, V.D., Gierschener, J., Otyepka, M., Dangles dan O. (2016). Stabilizing and modulating color by copigmentation: insights from theory and experiments. Chemical Reviews 116(9): 4937–4982. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.5b00507.

Winarno, F.G. (1997). Kimia Pangan dan Gizi. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta.

Zoric, Z., Dragovic-Uzelac, V., Pedisic, S., Kurtanjek, Z. Garofulic, I.E. (2014). Kinetics of the degradation of anthocyanins, phenolic acids, and flavonols during heat treatment of freeze dried sour cherry marasca pasta. Food Technology Biotechnology 52(1): 101–108.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.22963

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 887 | views : 1377

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2018 Agritech

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Agritech has been Indexed by:


Agritech (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


website statisticsView My Stats