Perbaikan Proses Fermentasi Biji Kakao Non Fermentasi dengan Penambahan Biakan Murni Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus lactis dan Acetobacter aceti

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.16764

Mulono Apriyanto(1*), Sutardi Sutardi(2), Eni Harmayani(3), Supriyanto Supriyanto(4)

(1) Jurusan Teknologi Pangan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Islam Indragiri, Jl. Propinsi parit 1 Tembilahan, Indragiri Hilir Riau
(2) Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Sosio Yustisio Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta
(3) Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Sosio Yustisio Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta
(4) Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Sosio Yustisio Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Most cocoa beans produced by Indonesian farmers are non-fermented dry cocoa whose quality can be improved by the fermentation. However, it requires the optimization for fermentation process. This study was conducted to determine the effect of giving a pure culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus lactis and Acetobacter aceti bacteria in fermented dry cocoa beans. Dry beans obtained by drying the wet (fresh) cocoa beans in the cabinet dryer, and subsequently their levels of reduction sugar were determined. The experiments of the fermentation of dry cocoa beans were conducted in a box (p = 120 cm, l = 80 cm, t = 40 cm) with aeration hole (diameter of 1 cm) and the distance between holes was 10 cm. Cocoa beans were incubated for 6 days and without inverted during fermentation. The studied treatments were A1 (without the addition of inoculum (control)), A2 (inocolum was added at the beginning of the incubation), A3 (inoculum was added at the beginning of fermentation (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). After 24 hours of experiment, Lactobacillus lactis was added while Acetobacter aceti was added after 48 hours. Each treatment was repeated three times and observed every two days. The levels of reducing sugars, etanol, acidity, yeasts and acetic acid bacteria population in the fermentation pulp/liquid were observed during the fermentation process. In order to determine the quality of dry beans, several aspects have been measured such as: pH, fermentation index and split test on dry beans after fermentation.

ABSTRAK

Sebagian besar biji kakao yang dihasilkan petani Indonesia merupakan kakao kering non-fermentasi yang kualitasnya masih dapat ditingkatkan dengan metode fermentasi, tetapi dibutuhkan optimasi agar fermentasi dapat berjalan dengan baik. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari pemberian biakan murni murni Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus lactis dan Acetobacter aceti pada fermentasi biji kakao kering jemur. Biji kakao kering jemur diperoleh dengan mengeringkan biji kakao basah (segar) dalam kabinet dryer, dan ditentukan kadar gula reduksinya. Percobaan fermentasi biji kakao kering jemur dilakukan dalam kotak fermentasi (p = 120 cm, l = 80 cm, t = 40 cm) yang diberi lubang aerasi berdiameter 1 cm dan jarak antar lubang 10 cm. Biji kakao difermentasi selama 6 hari dan tanpa dibalik selama fermentasi. Perlakuan dalam penelitian ini adalah A1 (tanpa penambahan biakan murni murni (kontrol)), A2 (pemberian biakan murni murni diawal fermenatasi), A3 (pemberian biakan murni murni secara bertahap selama fermentasi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), setelah jam ke 24 diberikan Lactobacillus lactis dan setelah jam ke 48 diberikan Acetobacter aceti. Setiap perlakuan diulangi tiga kali dan diamati tiap dua hari sekali. Kadar gula reduksi, kadar etanol, kadar asam tertitrasi, populasi khamir, dan bakteri asam asetat dalam pulp/cairan fermentasi diamati selama proses fermentasi. Untuk mengetahui kualitas biji kakao kering jemur dilakukan pengukuran pH, indeks fermentasi dan uji belah pada biji kakao kering jemur setelah fermentasi.


Keywords


Acetobacter aceti; cocoa beans; fermentation; Lactobacillus latis; Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.16764

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Agritech (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


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