Pengaruh Jenis Asam dalam Isolasi Gelatin dari Kulit Ikan Nila (Oreochromis niloticus) terhadap Karakteristik Emulsi

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.13025

Suryanti Suryanti(1*), Djagal Wiseso Marseno(2), Retno Indrati(3), Hari Eko Irianto(4)

(1) Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Daya Saing Produk dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan, Jl. K.S. Tubun, Petamburan VI, Jakarta 12060
(2) Departemen Teknologi Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta
(3) Departemen Teknologi Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta
(4) Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Daya Saing Produk dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan, Jl. K.S. Tubun, Petamburan VI, Jakarta 12060
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The isolation of gelatin from nila fish (Oreochromis niloticus) skin with two types of acid (acetic acid 0,10 M and citric acid 0,05 M) was carried out on the characteristics of the emulsion to know the ability of gelatin as an emulsifier. The observation has been made for gelatin including native molecule weight with non-SDS PAGE (polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis), pH, isoelectric point, and amino acid content. The characteristics of emulsion were analysed for the emulsion properties (activity and stability), viscosity, particle size, microstructure, and zeta potential. The concentrations of gelatin used in the formation of the emulsion were 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% with soybean oil ratio was 3:1 (v/v). The results showed that the molecular weight of native gelatin from acetic acid 0.10 M was > 260 kD, whereas from citric acids 0.05 M was 260 kD. The isoelectric point of both gelatin was at pH 8.5 whereas the pH of gelatin obtained using acetic acid 0.10 M was 5.35 and citric acid 0.05 M was 4.33. The level of lipophilic amino  acid was higher than hydrophilic amino acid with the highest amount was glycine. The emulsifying properties of gelatin obatined from both acids reached the highest value of EAI (Emulsion Activity Index) at a concentration of 0.5% which decreased with the increasing of concentration. In contrary, the value of ESI (Emulsion Stability Index) and viscosity increased with the increasing of concentration. The particle size and microstructure of gelatin emulsion with acetic acid 0.10 M were greater than those with citric acid 0.05 M at the same concentration and showed to increase with the increasing of concentration. Zeta potentials of both gelatin were positive charge at all concentrations which increased with the increasing of concentration.

 

ABSTRAK

Isolasi gelatin dari kulit ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus) dengan dua jenis asam (asam asetat 0,10 M dan asam sitrat 0,05 M) terhadap karakteristik emulsi telah dilakukan untuk mengetahui kemampuan gelatin sebagai emulsifier. Pengamatan terhadap gelatin meliputi berat molekul native dengan non-SDS PAGE (polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis), titik isoelektrik, pH dan asam amino. Pengamatan terhadap karakteristik emulsi meliputi sifat (aktivitas dan stabilitas), viskositas, ukuran partikel, dan mikrostruktur emulsi serta zeta potensial. Konsentrasi gelatin yang digunakan dalam pembentukan emulsi yaitu 0%, 0,5%, 1,0%, 2,0%, dan 3,0% dengan menambahkan minyak kedele pada rasio 3:1 (v/v). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan berat molekul gelatin native dari asam asetat 0,10 M adalah > 260 kD sedangkan dari asam sitrat 0,05 M sebesar 260 kD. Titik isoelektrik kedua gelatin pada pH = 8,5 sedangkan pH gelatin dari asam asetat 0,10 M sebesar 5,35 dan dari asam sitrat 0,05 M sebesar 4,33. Kandungan asam amino lipofilik dari kedua gelatin lebih banyak daripada asam amino hidrofilik dengan kandungan yang terbesar adalah glisin. Sifat emulsi gelatin dari kedua proses asam tersebut memiliki nilai EAI (Emulsion Activity Index) tertinggi pada konsentrasi 0,5%, yang semakin menurun dengan semakin meningkatnya konsentrasi. Sebaliknya nilai ESI (Emulsion Stability Index) dan viskositas emulsi semakin meningkat dengan semakin meningkatnya konsentrasi. Ukuran partikel droplet dan mikrostruktur emulsi gelatin dari proses asam asetat 0,10 M lebih besar daripada proses asam sitrat 0,05 M pada konsentrasi yang sama dan menunjukkan peningkatan dengan semakin meningkatnya konsentrasi. Zeta potensial kedua gelatin bernilai positif pada semua konsentrasi dan meningkat dengan semakin besarnya konsentrasi.


Keywords


Acid; emulsion; fish; gelatin; skin

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.13025

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