Antioxidant Activity and Total Flavonoid of Carica papaya L. Leaves with Different Varieties, Maturity and Solvent

Fatma Zuhrotun Nisa(1*), Mary Astuti(2), Sofia Mubarika Haryana(3), Agnes Murdiati(4)

(1) Department of Health and Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Ners, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281
(2) Department of Food Technology and Agriculture Products, Faculty of Agriculture Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Department of Health and Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Ners, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281
(4) Department of Food Technology and Agriculture Products, Faculty of Agriculture Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author


Carica papaya leaves are one of the vegetables consumed by Indonesian people, especially in Java Island. Carica papaya is easy to grow in Indonesia and has many variants, so, Carica Papaya leaves is a local potent to be developed for functional food and nutraceutical. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and total flavonoids of Carica papaya leaves with different varieties, maturity and solvent. Carica papaya leaves (CPL) was firstly extracted by methanol to select two CPLs with high antioxidant capacity and total flavonoid. The two selected CPLs were further tested with different ages mainly young and mature leaves. One selected CPL was further tested with different extraction solvents. Antioxidant activity was determined by 2.2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and Ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP. This study used five varieties of Carica papaya leaves, namely Bangkok, California, Purple, Golden and Grendel. The result showed that Golden and Grendel varieties had a higher percentage of radical scavenging property than the others, which was 78.37% and 77.40% by the DPPH method. Grendel and Purple had a higher percentage of radical scavenging property, which was 45.82 and 34.32 mmol/mg. Grendel and Purple had a higher total flavonoid property, which was 50.33 and 46.02 µg/g. Mature leaves had a higher percentage of radical scavenging property than young leaves by DPPH and FRAP methods. Mature leaves had a higher total flavonoid property than young leaves in both Grendel and Purple. Grendel had a higher antioxidant activity and a higher total flavonoid property than Purple. Grendel with water extraction had a higher antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The total flavonoid of Grendel papaya leaves’ extract with water extraction was lower than ethanol 70% and methanol.


Antioxidant; Carica papaya; flavonoid; leaves

Full Text:



Amiot, M. J., Tacchini, M., Aubert, S. Y., & Oleszek, W. (1995). Influence of Cultivar, Maturity Stage, and Storage Conditions on Phenolic Composition and Enzymatic Browning of Pear Fruits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry43(5), 1132–1137.

Basu, A., & Haldar, S. (2008). Dietary isothiocyanate mediated apoptosis of human cancer cells is associated with Bcl-xL phosphorylation. International Journal of Oncology33(4), 657–663.

Bimakr, M., Rahman, R. A., Taip, F. S., Ganjloo, A., Salleh, L. M., Selamat, J., … Zaidul, I. S. M. (2011). Comparison of different extraction methods for the extraction of major bioactive flavonoid compounds from spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) leaves. Food and Bioproducts Processing89(1), 67–72.

Cao, G., Sofic, E., & Prior, R. L. (1997). Antioxidant and prooxidant behavior of flavonoids: Structure-activity relationships. Free Radical Biology and Medicine22(5), 749–760.

Cook, N. C., & Samman, S. (1996). Flavonoids - Chemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects, and dietary sources. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. Elsevier Inc.

Ching, L. S., & Mohamed, S. (2001). Alpha-tocopherol content in 62 edible tropical plants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry49(6), 3101–3105.

Dixon, R. A., & Paiva, N. L. (1995). Stress-Induced Phenylpropanoid Metabolism. The Plant cell, 7(7), 1085–1097. doi:10.1105/tpc.7.7.1085

Goli, A. H., Barzegar, M., & Sahari, M. A. (2005). Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of pistachio (Pistachia vera) hull extracts. Food Chemistry92(3), 521–525.

Hakkinen, S.H., Karenlampi, S.O., Mykkanen, H.M. & Torronen, A.R. (1999). Content of the Flavonols Quercetin, Myricetin, and Kaempferol in 25 Edible Berries Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47(5):2960-2965. doi: 10.1021/jf9811065

Halvorsen, B. L., Holte, K., Myhrstad, M. C. W., Barikmo, I., Hvattum, E., Remberg, S. F., ... Blomhoff, R. (2002). A systematic screening of total antioxidants in dietary plants. Journal of Nutrition, 132(3), 461-471.

Haytowitz, D. B., Bhagwat, S., & Holden, J. M. (2013). Sources of Variability in the Flavonoid Content of Foods. Procedia Food Science2, 46–51.

Hue, S.M., Boyce, A.N., & Somasundram, C. (2012). Antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoid contents in the leaves of different varieties of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Australian Journal of Crop Science 6(3):375-380. ISSN 1835-2693

Kacharava, N., Chanishvili, S., Badridze, G., Chkhubianishvili, E., & Janukashvili, N. (2009). Effect of seed irradiation on the content of antioxidants in leaves of Kidney bean, Cabbage and Beet cultivars. Australian Journal of Crop Science 3 (3):137-145. ISSN 1835-2693

Maisarah, A.M., Nurul Amira, B., Asmah, R., & Fauziah, O.  (2013). Antioxidant analysis of different parts of Carica papaya. International Food Research Journal 20(3):1043-1048.

Miean, K. H., & Mohamed, S. (2001). Flavonoid (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, and apigenin) content of edible tropical plants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry49(6), 3106–3112.

Mello, V.J., Gomes, M.T., Lemos, F.O., Delfino, J.L., Andrade, S.P., Lopes, M.T., & Salas,C.E. (2008). The gastric ulcer protective and healing role of cysteine proteinases from Carica candamarcensis. Phytomedicine. 15:237–244.

Muñoz, V., Sauvain, M., Bourdy, G., Callapa, J., Rojas, I., Vargas, L., … Deharo, E. (2000). The search for natural bioactive compounds through a multidisciplinary approach in Bolivia. Part II. Antimalarial activity of some plants used by Mosetene indians. Journal of Ethnopharmacology69(2), 139–155.

Nantitanon, W., Yotsawimonwat, S., & Okonogi, S. (2010). Factors influencing antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of guava leaf extract. LWT - Food Science and Technology43(7), 1095–1103.

Patil, B.S., Pike, L.M., & Hamilton, B.K. (1995). Changes in quercetin concentration in onion (Allium cepa L.) owing to location, growth stage and soil type. New Phytologyst 130: 340-355.

Prior, R.L., & Cao, G. (2000). Antioxidant phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables: diet and health implications. Horticulutural Science 35(4): 588–592. ISSN 1805-9333

Seigler, D. S., Pauli, G. F., Nahrstedt, A., & Leen, R. (2002). Cyanogenic allosides and glucosides from Passiflora edulis and Carica papaya. Phytochemistry60(8), 873–882.

Taie, H.A.A., El-Mergawi, R. and Radwan, S. 2008. Isoflavonoids, Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Soybean Seeds as Affected by Organic and Bioorganic Fertilization. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environment Science 4 (2): 207-213. ISSN : 1990-4053

Turkmen, N., Sari, F., & Velioglu, Y. S. (2006). Effects of extraction solvents on concentration and antioxidant activity of black and black mate tea polyphenols determined by ferrous tartrate and Folin-Ciocalteu methods. Food Chemistry99(4), 835–841.

van Breemen, R. B., & Pajkovic, N. (2008, October 8). Multitargeted therapy of cancer by lycopene. Cancer Letters.

Van der Sluis, A. A., Dekker, M., De Jager, A., & Jongen, W. M. F. (2001). Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple: Effect of cultivar, harvest year, and storage conditions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry49(8), 3606–3613.

Vichitphan, S., Vichitphan, K., & Sirikhansaeng, P. (2007). Flavonoid content and antioksidan activity of krachaidum (Kaemferia parviflora) Wine. Journal of Science Technology 7:97- 105.

Victorio, C.P., Lage, C.L.S.. & Kuster, R.M. (2009). Flavonoid extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different techniques and solvents. Ecletica Quimica Sao Paulo 34 (1):19-24.

Visavadiya, N. P., Soni, B., & Dalwadi, N. (2009). Free radical scavenging and antiatherogenic activities of Sesamum indicum seed extracts in chemical and biological model systems. Food and Chemical Toxicology47(10), 2507–2515.

Winkel-Shirley, B. (2002). Biosynthesis of flavonoids and effects of strWinkel-Shirley, B. (2002). Biosynthesis of flavonoids and effects of stress. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 5, 218–223.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2818 | views : 4870


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Fatma Zuhrotun Nisa, Mary Astuti, Sofia Mubarika Haryana, Agnes Murdiati

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

agriTECH has been Indexed by:

agriTECH (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.

website statisticsView My Stats