Pengaruh Fermentasi terhadap Kandungan Protein dan Asam Amino pada Tepung Gaplek yang Difortifikasi Tepung Kedelai (Glycine max (L))

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.10684

Yohanes Martono(1*), Lucia Devi Danriani(2), Sri Hartini(3)

(1) Program Studi Kimia, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Jl. Diponegoro No. 52-60, Salatiga
(2) Program Studi Kimia, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Jl. Diponegoro No. 52-60, Salatiga
(3) Program Studi Kimia, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Jl. Diponegoro No. 52-60, Salatiga
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Enhancement of proteins and enrichment of amino acids of dried cassava flour can be carried out by fermentation of dried cassava and soy-flour mixture. The purposes of this study were to compare soluble protein's content and to identify amino acids in fortified dried-cassava flour. The methods involved were making fortified dried-cassava flour with ratio of 25 g (soy-flour) and 5 g (yeasts) of 100 grams dried-cassava and fermentation of the mixture for 40 h, measuring soluble protein's content by biuret assay and identifying amino acids using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Research design used Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD). Treatments applied were unfortified dried cassava flour at 0 hour (G0); 20 hour (G20); 40 hour (G40) and fortified dried cassava flour at 0 hour (GF0); 20 hour (GF20) and 40 hour (GF40). As group was analyisis time. Data of soluble protein content were analyzed using ANNOVA. The Honestly Significant Differences (HSD) test at 5% level of significance was used to compare the treatments mean. The results showed that the soluble protein's content of 40 hours fermentation was higher than of 20 hours fermentation and the latter was higher than 0 hour fermentation, with values of 22.86%, 20.96%, and 18.70%, respectively. Based on TLC and HPLC identification, the amino acids in fortified dried-cassava flour, were aspartate, glumatate, serine, histidine, glicine, arginine, alanine, tyrosine, methionine, valine, isoleusine, leusine, and lysine.

ABSTRAK

Peningkatan kadar protein dan pengayaan asam amino dalam tepung gaplek dapat dilakukan dengan cara fortifikasi tepung gaplek dengan tepung kedelai melalui fermentasi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membandingkan kandungan protein  terlarut  antara  tepung  gaplek  tidak  terfortifikasi dan  terfortifikasi tepung  kedelai  pada  beberapa  waktu fermentasi dan mengidentifikasi asam amino yang terkandung dalam tepung gaplek dan tepung gaplek terfortifikasi. Metode penelitian meliputi pembuatan tepung gaplek terfortifikasi secara fermentasi dengan rasio penambahan tepung kedelai 25 g dan kapang 5 g dari 100 g gaplek yang kemudian difermentasi selama 40 jam. Kadar protein ditentukan menggunakan metode Biuret sedangkan identifikasi asam amino menggunakan metode Kromatografi Lapis Tipis (KLT) dan Kromatografi Cair Kinerja Tinggi (KCKT). Rancangan percobaan penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK). Sebagai perlakuan adalah gaplek kontrol (tidak terfortifikasi tepung kedelai) pada jam ke-0 (G0); 20 jam (G20); 40 jam (G40) dan gaplek terfortifikasi pada jam ke-0 (GF0); 20 jam (GF20); dan 40 jam (GF40). Sebagai kelompok adalah waktu analisis. Data rata-rata kadar protein terlarut dibandingkan dengan uji Beda Nyata Jujur (BNJ) dengan tingkat kebermaknaan 5%. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kadar protein terlarut pada fermentasi selama 40 jam lebih tinggi dibandingkan 20 jam dan 0 jam, dengan nilai 22,68%, 20,96%, dan 18,70% secara berurutan. Berdasarkan hasil identifikasi KLT dan KCKT, asam amino dalam tepung gaplek terfortifikasi adalah aspartat, glutamat, serin, histidin, glisin, arginin, alanin, tirosin, metionin, valin, isoleusin, dan lisin.


Keywords


Dried-cassava; fortification; fermentation; protein; amino-acid

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.10684

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