Aktivitas Antioksidan, Kandungan Fenolik Total, dan Flavonoid Total Daun Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L)

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9849

Abdul Rohman(1*), Sugeng Riyanto(2), Nurul Khusna Hidayati(3)

(1) Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta
(2) Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta
(3) Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Antioxidants are the compounds having an ability to inhibit free radical reactions in the human body. This research aimed: (i) to evaluate the antioxidant activity of extract and/ fractions from mengkudu leave, (ii) to determine total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, and (iii) to correlate the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of those extract and/fractions with their antioxidant activities. Mengkudu leaves were extracted by methanol, evaporated, dissolved in aquadest, and subsequently partitioned using hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate to afford hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water fractions. The antioxidant activity was determined by radical scavenging assay using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were determined spectrophotometrically. The results showed that among extract and/fractions of mengkudu leaves evaluated, water fraction revealed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values 123.72 µg/ml compared to those of ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 290.78 µg/ml), chloroform fraction (IC50 349.29 µg/ml), and methanol extract before being partitioned (IC50 244.98 μg/ml). The antioxidant activities of these extract and/fractions are lower than that of vitamin E (IC50 8.27 µg/ml). The total phenolic contents ranged from 0.20 ± 0.02 to 5.91 ± 0.06 g of gallic acid equivalent/100 gram dry material, whereas  the total flavonoid contents ranged from 0.21 ± 0.01 to 0.75 ± 0.01 g of quercetin equivalent/100 gram dry material. A linier positive relationship existed between the total phenolic contents of these extract and/fractions with their antioxidant activities y = -38.985x + 355.209; r2 = 0.982, while the correlation between the total flavonoid contents and their antioxidant activities revealed a linier regression -369.637 + 404.668; r2 = 0.9467.

ABSTRAK

Antioksidan merupakan senyawa  yang mampu menghambat reaksi radikal bebas dalam tubuh. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (i) menentukan aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak dan atau fraksi daun mengkudu, (ii) menentukan kandungan fenolik dan flavonoid total, serta (iii) menentukan hubungan antara aktivitas antioksidan dengan kandungan fenolik total dan flavonoid totalnya. Daun mengkudu dimaserasi dengan metanol lalu diuapkan hingga diperoleh ekstrak metanol. Ekstrak metanol dilarutkan dalam air lalu dipartisi dengan heksan, klororoform, dan etil asetat untuk memperoleh fraksi-fraksi heksan, kloroform, etil asetat, dan air. Aktivitas antioksidan ditentukan dengan uji penangkapan radikal DPPH (2,2-difenill-1-pikrilhidrazil). Kandungan fenolik total dan flavonoid total ditentukan dengan teknik spektrofotometri. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa fraksi air menunjukkan aktivitas antioksidan paling tinggi dengan nilai IC50 123,72 µg/ml dibanding fraksi etil asetat (IC50 290,78 µg/ml), fraksi kloroform (IC50 349,29 µg/ml), dan ekstrak metanol daun mengkudu sebelum dipartisi (IC50 244,98 μg/ml). Semua ekstrak dan atau fraksi uji mempunyai aktivitas antioksidan yang lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan vitamin E (IC50 8,27 µg/ml). Kandungan fenolik total ekstrak dan atau fraksi daun mengkudu berkisar antara 0,20 ± 0,02 sampai 5,91 ± 0,06 % b/b EAG, sedangkan kandungan flavonoid totalnya berkisar antara 0,21 ± 0,01 sampai 0,75 ± 0,01 %b/b EK. Kandungan fenolik total ekstrak dan atau fraksi daun mengkudu dan nilai IC50-nya menunjukkan hubungan linier y = -38,985x + 355,209; dengan nilai koefisien determinasi (r2) = 0,982, sedangkan hubungan antara flavonoid total ekstrak dan atau fraksi daun mengkudu dengan IC50-nya mempunyai persamaan regresi linier y = -369,637 + 404,668; dengan nilai  r2 = 0,9467.


Keywords


Antioxidant; mengkudu leaves; DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl)

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9849

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Agritech (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


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