Transesterifikasi In Situ Biji Jarak: Pengaruh Kadar Air dan Ukuran Partikel Bahan terhadap Rendemen dan Kualitas Biodiesel

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9750

Ika Amalia Kartika(1*), Sri Yuliani(2), Danu Ariono(3), Sugiarto Sugiarto(4)

(1) Departemen Teknologi Industri Pertanian, FATETA-IPB, Kampus Darmaga P.O. Box 220, Bogor 16002
(2) Balai Besar Litbang Pascapanen Pertanian; Jl. Tentara Pelajar 12
(3) Departemen Teknik Kimia, FTI-ITB, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132
(4) Departemen Teknologi Industri Pertanian, FATETA-IPB, Kampus Darmaga P.O. Box 220, Bogor 16002
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The objective of this study was to investigate in situ transesterification process allowing to realize directly biodiesel production from jatropha seeds. The influence of moisture content (0.5, 2, 3 and 4 %) and particle size (10, 20 and 35 mesh) of jatropha seeds was examined to determine the best performance of the biodiesel production yield and its quality. Generally, the moisture content and particle size of jatropha seeds affected biodiesel production yield. An increase of biodiesel production yield was observed as moisture content and particle size of jatropha seeds were decreased. Highest biodiesel production yield (71 %) was obtained under seed moisture content of 0.5 % and particle size of 35 mesh. Effect of the moisture content and particle size of jatropha seeds on biodiesel quality was less important. In all experiments tested, the biodiesel quality was very good. The acid value was below 0.3 mg KOH/g of biodiesel, water and sediment content was very poor (< 0.05 %), viscosity was low (< 3.5 cSt), soap and ester values were high (> 210 mg KOH/g of biodiesel). In addition, quality of biodiesel produced under optimum process condition was in accord with Indonesian Biodiesel Standard.

ABSTRAK

Kegiatan penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari proses produksi biodiesel secara langsung dari biji jarak melalui proses transesterifikasi in situ. Parameter kondisi proses yang dipelajari adalah pengaruh kadar air (0,5, 2, 3 dan 4 %) dan ukuran partikel bahan (10, 20 dan 35 mesh) terhadap rendemen biodiesel dan kualitasnya. Kadar air dan ukuran
partikel bahan berpengaruh nyata terhadap rendemen biodiesel. Semakin kecil kadar air dan ukuran partikel bahan, rendemen biodiesel dan efektifitas proses transesterifikasi in situ biji jarak semakin meningkat. Rendemen biodiesel tertinggi (71 %) dihasilkan dari perlakuan kadar air dan ukuran partikel bahan 0,5 % dan 35 mesh. Biodiesel yang
dihasilkan dari proses transesterifikasi in situ biji jarak mempunyai bilangan asam, viskositas, air dan sedimen yang relatif rendah, yaitu 0,27 mg KOH/g biodiesel, < 3,5 cSt dan < 0,05 %, serta memenuhi Standar Biodiesel Indonesia. Pengaruh kadar air dan ukuran partikel bahan terhadap air dan sedimen, bilangan asam dan viskositas biodiesel tidak
signifikan untuk seluruh perlakuan yang diuji pada penelitian ini. Biodiesel yang dihasilkan dari proses transesterifikasi in situ biji jarak juga mempunyai bilangan penyabunan dan ester yang cukup tinggi, yaitu > 210 mg KOH/g biodiesel. Ukuran partikel bahan tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap bilangan penyabunan dan ester biodiesel, sedangkan kadar air
bahan menunjukkan pengaruh yang nyata.


Keywords


Transesterification; in situ; jatropha seed; biodiesel

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9750

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agriTECH (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


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