Fraksinasi dan Identifikasi Senyawa Volatil pada Asap Cair Tempurung Kelapa Hibrida

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9674

Syahraeni Kadir(1*), Purnama Darmadji(2), Chusnul Hidayat(3), Supriyadi Supriyadi(4)

(1) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Tadulako, Kampus Bumi tondo, Palu, Sulawesi Tengah
(2) Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(4) Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Hybrid coconut shell is a potential raw material for liquid smoke because it contains lignin and cellulose as in local coconut shell. The liquid smoke has been found to contain compound functioning as smoky product improvement. The objective of this research was to identify components of volatile compound existing in the liquid smoke of hybrid coco- nut shell resulted from fractionation at various redistillation temperatures.Crude liquid smoke fractionation in this research was conducted by redistillation levels (level I, II, III) and pre-con- densation (IV) with three temperatures: <100oC, 100-110oC, and >110oC. Redistillate was analyzed for its chemical component including total phenol, carbonyl, and acid. Liquid smoke components of volatile compound were identified using GC-MS. Results of the research indicated that liquid smoke fraction resulted from redistillation at 100-110oC had highest concentration of 85.70%, contains about 1.36-1.47% of total phenol, 5.25-6.38% of carbonyl and 14.91-15.35% of total acid. Aroma range of liquid smoke from redistillation had strong (+1) aroma to very strong aroma (+4), particularly on pre-condensation fraction. Fraction in level II in each redistillation temperature had aroma rep- resentative for testing organic component with GC-MS. Results of volatile compound analysis with GC-MS revealed that crude liquid smoke contains 42 of organic compounds. However, its fractionation results contain 25 of organic compounds with redistillation temperature <100oC, 21 of organic compounds at 100-110oC and 16 of organic com- pounds at >110oC. Some compounds that play role in liquid smoke aroma are phenolic compound, guaiacol deriva- tives, syringol derivatives, isoeugenol, vanilin, furan, furfural, acetic acid, acetophenon and cyclotene.

ABSTRAK

Tempurung kelapa hibrida merupakan salah satu bahan baku potensial untuk asap cair karena mengandung lignin dan selulosa sebagaimana halnya pada tempurung kelapa lokal. Beberapa hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di dalam asap cair terkandung berbagai senyawa kimia yang berperan memperbaiki mutu produk asapan. Penelitian ini bertu- juan mengidentifikasi komponen senyawa volatil di dalam asap cair tempurung kelapa hibrida hasil fraksinasi pada berbagai suhu redistilasi. Fraksinasi asap cair kasar di dalam penelitian ini dilakukan dengan redistilasi bertingkat (I, II dan III) serta prekondensasi (IV), dengan tiga variasi suhu : < 100 °C; 100-110 °C dan >110 °C. Redistilat yang diperoleh kemudian dianalisis komponen kimiawinya yang meliputi total fenol, karbonil, asam dan pH. Komponen senyawa volatil asap cair diidentifikasi dengan menggunakan GC-MS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa redisti- lasi asap cair pada suhu 100-110 °C mempunyai total rendemen tertinggi yakni 85,70%, yang mengandung sekitar1,36-1,47%  fenol, 5,25-6,38% karbonil dan 14,91-15,35% total asam. Kisaran aroma asap hasil fraksinasi dengan redistilasi bertingkat mempunyai kisaran aroma kuat (+1) sampai dengan sangat kuat/menyengat (+4), terutama pada fraksi pre kondensasi. Hasil pengujian dengan GC-MS menunjukkan bahwa asap cair kasar mengandung 42 senyawa organik. Akan tetapi, hasil fraksinasinya menunjukkan bahwa pada suhu redistilasi <100 °C terdapat 25 senyawa organik; 21 senyawa organik pada suhu redistilasi 100-110 °C dan 16 senyawa organik pada suhu redistilasi >110°C. Beberapa senyawa yang berperan di dalam aroma asap cair adalah senyawa fenol, derivat guaiakol, derivat syringol, isoeugenol, vanilin, furan, furfural, asam asetat, asetofenon dan sikloten.


Keywords


Hybrid coconut hell; liquid smoke; fractionation; redistillation; identification; volatile compounds; aroma

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9674

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