Modifikasi dan Evaluasi Kinerja Mesin Penyawut Ubikayu (MPB-09)

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9639

I. K. Tastra(1*)

(1) Laboratorium Sifat Fisik dan Panas Kelti Pasca Panen dan Mekanisasi Balai Penelitian Tanaman Kacang-kacangan dan umbi-umbian Kotak Pos 66 Malang 65101
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


High moisture of fresh cassava root (65-75 % wet basis) need appropriate post harvest handling that can reduce lossesdue to delayed drying process. To accelerate drying process, a cassava chipper (MPB-09) was modified and evaluated for chipping fresh cassava root. This machine included hopper, horizontal chipping cylinder, 5.5 hp gasoline engine, belt, pulley, frame and cover. The performance evaluation of the cassava chipper was done using the combination of four type chipping cylinder (3, 4, 5 and 6 knife) and three level chipping cylinder speed (400, 500, 600 Rpm). Regression analysis and homogeneity test of the regression coefficient was used to evaluate the the performance of the cassava chipper. Based on the optimum combination of the type of chipping cylinder and its speed, financial analysis was conducted to evaluate its feasibility. The optimum effective capacity of MPB-09 chipper was at horizontal chipping cylinder with 6 knife and rotation speed 600 rpm. At effective capacity 2.5 t/hour, investment cost Rp 7,500,000 /unit, effective working hours 160 hours/years, two operator cost Rp 200,000 /day and chipping cost Rp 50 /kg chip ; the unit cost (BP) was Rp 22 /kg chip; the break-even point (BEP) was 90.3 t chip/year; the pay back periodl (PBP) was0.7 years; the net present value (NPV) was Rp 24,473,739; the benefit cost ratio (B/C) was 1.8 and the internal rate of return (IRR) was 149.8 %. Based on the results of the financial analysis. it was concluded that MPB-09 chipper was feasible to be applied at farm level.

ABSTRAK

Kadar air umbi ubikayu yang tinggi (65-70 % bb) saat panen memerlukan penanganan yang cepat guna mengurangisusut  mutu  akibat  keterlambatan  proses  pengeringan.  Untuk mempercepat proses pengeringan telah  dilakukan modifikasi mesin penyawut (MPB-09) dengan komponen pisau sawut masing-masing sebanyak 3, 4, 5 dan 6 buah per piringan dan dievaluasi kinerjanya pada putaran 400, 500 dan 600 Rpm. Evaluasi kinerja mesin MPB-09 dilakukan dengan menggunakan umbi ubikayu yang sudah dikupas sebanyak 25 kg dan diulang 4 kali untuk setiap kombinasi jumlah pisau sawut dan putarannya. Untuk menentukan jumlah pisau dan putaran yang optimum dilakukan analisis regresi dan uji homogenitas koefisien regresi. Pada tingkat kapasitas efektif penyawutan yang optimum dilakukan analisis kelayakan finansial untuk menentukan tingkat kelayakan penerapannya meliputi perhitungan: biaya pokok (BP), titik impas (BEP), waktu pengembalian modal (PBP), nilai keuntungan sekarang (NPV), nisbah keuntungan dengan biaya (B/C) dan tingkat pengembalian modal (IRR). Hasil analisis regresi linier dan uji homogenitas koefisien regresi, pengaruh putaran pisau sawut terhadap kapasitas efektif menunjukkan bahwa ada interaksi antara jumlah pisau sawut dan putarannya. Dari 4 tipe pisau sawut, pisau sawut yang jumlahnya 6 dan putaran 600 Rpm memberikan kapasitas efektif terbesar (2,5 t/jam). Pada tingkat kapasitas efektif 2,5 t/jam, harga mesin Rp 7,5 juta/unit, jam kerja efektif 8 jam/hari, upah 2 orang operator Rp 200.000/hari, ongkos sewa penyawutan Rp 50 /kg sawut; diperoleh nilai BP = 22/kg sawut, BEP = 90,3 t sawut/tahun, PBP = 0,7 tahun, NPV = Rp 24.473.739, B/C = 1,8 dan IRR =149,8. Mesin penyawut MPB-09 Balitkabi secara teknis dan finansial layak diterapkan dalam sistem penjualan jasa penyawutan ubi kayu di tingkat petani.


Keywords


Cassava; chipper

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9639

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Agritech (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


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