Mitigasi Pelindian Nitrat pada Tanah Inceptisol melalui Pemanfaatan Bahan Nitrat Inhibitor Alami

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9622

Joko Pramono(1*), Djoko Prajitno(2), Tohari Tohari(3), Dja'far Shiddieq(4)

(1) Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian, Jawa Tengah, Kotak Pos 101, Ungaran 50501
(2) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora, Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora, Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281
(4) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora, Bulaksumur Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


NO3 - leaching is one mechanism of N reduction in agricultural activity, which may contribute to environmental pollution. The purpose of this research is to investigate the use of natural products as nitrate inhibitors toward nitrate leaching in Inceptisol soil. In this study, three types of natural nitrate inhibitors (NI) derived from neem seed powder (NSP), mangrove bark powder (MBP), and coffee leaf powder (CLP) were tested combined with the three doses of NI, i.e. 20 %, 30 %, and 40 % of urea used were given. Moreover, a treatment without NI was used as a control. Material was supplied with urea nitrate inhibitor on the surface of the soil in the pot experiment that had been moistened with distilled water. Results showed that the nitrate inhibitors materials had different response to different nitrifi cation inhibition. Nitrate inhibitors material derived from neem seed powder (NSP) had the highest inhibition rate of 25.6 %, while mangrove bark powder (MBP) and coffee leaf powder (CLP) had the rate of 9.1 % and 11.8 %, respectively. NI ingredients naturally capable of inhibiting nitrifi cation through the inhibition of nitrifi er growth (ammonium oxidizing) which was temporary in the range of 7-14 days after NI materials application. Treatment of different materials and NI doses suppressed the leaching of nitrate from 56.6 % to 62.8 % during 14 day after application. Treatment using different materials had signifi cant effect compare to the control treatment without NI. Optimal dose of two selected NI materials showed the best performance of nitrifi cation inhibition (NSP and MBP), i.e. 18.3% (R2 = 0.69) and 21.67% (R2 = 0.69) from a given dose of urea, respectively, 7 day after application.

ABSTRAK

Pelindian NO3- merupakan salah satu mekanisme kehilangan N dalam aktivitas pertanian, yang dapat berdampak terhadap pencemaran lingkungan. Tujuan dari penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui penggunaan bahan alami sebagai nitrat inhibitor terhadap pelindian nitrat pada tanah Inceptisol. Pada penelitian ini diuji tiga jenis bahan nitrat inhibitor (NI) alami yang berasal dari; serbuk biji Mimba (SBM), serbuk kulit kayu bakau (SKKB), dan serbuk daun kopi (SDK),yang dikombinasikan dengan tiga taraf dosis NI, yaitu: 20 %, 30 % dan 40 % dari urea yang diberikan, dan ditambah satu perlakuan kontrol tanpa NI. Bahan nitrat inhibitor diberikan bersama urea pada permukaan tanah dalam pot percobaan yang telah dibasahi dengan air suling. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bahan NI yang berbeda memberikan respon terhadap penghambatan nitrifi kasi yang berbeda. Bahan NI yang berasal dari serbuk biji mimba memberikan tingkat penghambatan tertinggi sebesar (25,6 %), serbuk kulit kayu bakau sebesar (19,1 %), dan serbuk daun kopi sebesar 11,8 %. Bahan NI alami mampu menghambat nitrifi kasi melalui penghambatan pertumbuhan bakteri nitrifi kasi (pengoksida ammonium) yang bersifat sementara pada kisaran 7-14 hari setelah aplikasi. Perlakuan berbagai bahan dan dosis NI mampu menekan pelindian nitrat rata-rata pada kisaran antara 56,6 sampai 62,8 % dan berbeda sangat nyata terhadap perlakuan kontrol tanpa NI. Bahan NI yang mampu menurunkan rata-rata pelindian nitrat pada pengamatan 14 hari setelah aplikasi tertinggi adalah SBM sebesar 74,15 %. Dosis optimal dua bahan NI terpilih yang menunjukkan kinerja penghambatan nitrifi kasi terbaik (SBM dan SKKB) pada 7 hsa, masing-masing 18,30 % (R2 = 0,694) dan 21,67 % (R2=0.691) dari dosis urea yang diberikan.


Keywords


Nitrifi cation; nitrate inhibitors; nitrate leaching

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9622

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Agritech (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


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