Komposisi Kimia dan Kristalinitas Tepung Pisang Termodifikasi secara Fermentasi Spontan dan Siklus Pemanasan Bertekanan-Pendinginan

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9504

Nurhayati Nurhayati(1*), Betty Sri Laksmi Jenie(2), Sri Widowati(3), Harsi Dewantari Kusumaningrum(4)

(1) Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Jember, Jl. Kalimantan I Kampus Tegal Boto, Jember 68121
(2) Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus Darmaga IPB, Bogor 16680
(3) Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pascapanen Departemen Pertanian, Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 12 A, Cimanggu, Bogor 16111
(4) Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus Darmaga IPB, Bogor 16680
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Studies on the chemical composition and crystallinity of the native banana flour and modified banana flour were carried out on “agung var semeru” banana (Musa paradisiaca formatypica). Native banana flour was produced by drying the banana slice, ground and passed through a 80 mesh screen. Modified banana flour were produced by spontaneous fermentation (room temperature, 24 h)and one or two cycles of  autoclaving (121 oC, 15 min) followed by cooling (4 oC, 24 h) of the slices before drying process. The results showed that spontaneous fermentation of banana slices increased amylose content. Two cycles of autoclaving-cooling significantly increased resistant starch content of banana flour (39.13 – 42.68% db) than the one cycle (29.34 – 35.93% db). Retrogradation process decreased the crystallinity from 18.74% -20.08% to 6.98% - 9.52%. X-ray diffraction showed that the starch granule was type C granule as a mixture
of A and B polymorphs.

ABSTRAK

Kajian tentang komposisi kimia dan kristalinitas tepung pisang alami dan tepung pisang termodifikasi dilakukan pada pisang var agung semeru (Musa paradisiaca formatypica). Tepung pisang alami (kontrol) dihasilkan dengan mengeringkan irisan pisang, menghancurkan dan mengayak tepung dengan ayakan 80 mesh. Tepung pisang modifikasi dihasilkan dengan cara irisan pisang diberi perlakuan fermentasi spontan (suhu kamar, 24 jam) dilanjutkan dengan satu atau dua siklus pemanasan bertekanan (121 oC, 15 menit) yang diikuti dengan pendinginan (4 oC, 24 jam) sebelum dilakukan proses pengeringan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa fermentasi spontan mampu meningkatkan kadar amilosa. Dua siklus pemanasan bertekanan-pendinginan meningkatkan pati resisten (RS) tepung pisang dengan nyata (39,13 – 42,68% bk) dibandingkan dengan yang satu siklus (29,34 – 35,93% bk). Proses pemanasan bertekananpendinginan menurunkan kristalinitas tepung pisang dari 18,74-20,08% menjadi 6,98-9,52%. Difraksi sinar X menunjukkan granula pati pisang adalah granula tipe C yang merupakan campuran dari granula tipe A dan tipe B.


Keywords


Modified banana flour; spontaneous fermentation; autoclaving-cooling cycles

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9504

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agriTECH (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


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