Pengaruh Perendaman Biji Kakao Kering dan Bahan Alat Sangrai terhadap Sifat Fisik dan Profil Senyawa Volatil Kakao Sangrai serta Sifat Sensoris Cokelat Batang yang Dihasilkan

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9439

Yulius Gae Lada(1*), Supriyanto Supriyanto(2), Purnama Darmadji(3)

(1) Program Studi Teknologi Hasil Perkebunan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(2) Program Studi Teknologi Hasil Perkebunan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Program Studi Teknologi Hasil Perkebunan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This research aimed at evaluating the effect of dry cocoa bean soaking and roasting using various type of materials  roaster instrument on the physical properties and profile of volatile compounds of roasted beans as well as sensorial attributes of chocolate bar resulted. Dry beans were soaked into water for 2 h to reduce acidity. Roasting was carried out using several instruments that were made from aluminum, iron and clay to obtain bean moisture content of 2 – 3.5%. Texture, color, and volatile compounds profile of roasted beans as well as sensorial attributes of chocolate bar were studied. Results showed that roasting cooking period (50 minutes) using clay roasting instrument was faster and had highest rate of temperature increase, followed by iron (70 minutes) and aluminum (90 minutes). Dry beans soaking significantly affected beans color (L* and λE value), chocolate bar attributes particularly aroma, acid taste and bitterness, however the instrument material differences had no significant effect on those parameters. The texture of cocoa beans roasted using a roaster of aluminum was the hardest, but it was not affected by the soaking treatment. Roasting of the cocoa beans using a roaster of aluminum, iron and clay produced different profiles on volatile compounds. A roaster of clay produced groups of compounds with the total area of SPME-GC-MS chromatogram was smaller than the roaster of aluminum and iron. The produced chocolate bars through the soaking treatment and roasting using a roaster of clay was preferred by the panelists.

ABSTRAK

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perendaman biji kakao kering dan penyangraian menggunakan berbagai jenis bahan alat sangrai terhadap sifat fisik dan profil senyawa volatil kakao sangrai serta sifat sensoris cokelat batang yang dihasilkan. Biji kakao kering direndam menggunakan air selama 2 jam untuk mengurangi keasaman, kemudian disangrai menggunakan berbagai jenis bahan alat sangrai (alumunium, besi dan tanah liat) hingga kadar air biji kakao sangrai mencapai 2 – 3,5%. Biji kakao kering diamati dan dianalisis sifat fisik dan profil senyawa volatil biji kakao sangrai serta sifat sensoris cokelat batang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan alat sangrai dari tanah liat lebih cepat dalam mematangkan biji kakao kering menjadi biji sangrai (50 menit) dengan laju peningkatan suhu yang cepat dan tinggi, selanjutnya diikuti dengan alat sangrai yang terbuat dari besi (70 menit) dan alumunium (90 menit). Perlakuan perendaman biji kakao kering berpengaruh nyata terhadap warna biji sangrai (nilai L* dan λE) dan sifat sensoris cokelat batang yang dihasilkan terutama aroma cokelat, rasa asam dan pahit, sedangkan perlakuan bahan alat sangrai tidak berpengaruh nyata. Tekstur biji kakao dari hasil penyangraian menggunakan alat sangrai dari alumunium adalah paling keras, tetapi tidak dipengaruhi oleh perlakuan perendaman. Penyangraian biji kakao menggunakan alat sangrai dari alumunium, besi dan tanah liat menghasilkan profil senyawa volatil yang berbeda. Dari kromatogram SPME-GC-MS diketahui bahwa alat sangrai dari tanah liat menghasilkan kelompok senyawa dan total luas area yang lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan alat sangrai dari alumunium dan besi. Cokelat batang yang dihasilkan melalui perendaman dan disangrai menggunakan alat sangrai dari tanah liat adalah yang paling disukai oleh panelis.


Keywords


Soaking; materials of roaster instrument; roasted cocoa beans; volatile compounds profile; chocolate bar

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9439

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Agritech (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


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