Formulasi dan Pengolahan Margarin Menggunakan Fraksi Minyak Sawit pada Skala Industri Kecil Serta Aplikasinya dalam Pembuatan Bolu Gulung

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9321

Hasrul Abdi Hasibuan(1*), Aga Prima Hardika(2)

(1) Pusat Penelitian Kelapa Sawit, Jl. Brigjend Katamso No. 51, Medan 20158
(2) Pusat Penelitian Kelapa Sawit, Jl. Brigjend Katamso No. 51, Medan 20158
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The development of bakery products has a positive impact on increasing margarine consumption. In addition, the variations of margarine formula are increasingly required for the development of the variety of bakery products, thus the production of margarine is promising to be developed on the small industries. The aims of the research was to produce margarine using palm oil and red palm oil and its application in roll cake. RPO was added in mixture as natural dyes and pro-vitamine A, so no need to use synthetic dyes. This research was conducted with 3 stages include: 1) formulation of margarine with mixing RBDPO and RPO at ratio 97.5:2.5 to 85:15 through the chemical physical properties approach of commercial margarine include fatty acid composition, iodine value, melting point and solid fat content, 2) optimization of the production of margarine using the best formula in reactor for texturing at 50 kg/ batch with varying temperature of the cooling medium (5±2, 12±2, 20±2 °C) and the time of process (0, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 min). Product was analyzed include water content, color, form, texture and their stability during storage, and 3) application of margarine for preparation of roll cake and its organoleptic test. The result of the formulation of margarine using RBDPO and RPO was obtained equivalent formula with the commercial margarine at the ratio 95:5. The optimum process condition for production of margarine at 50 kg/bacth with the best texture was obtained at cooler temperature 5±2 °C or 12±2 °C for 30 minutes. The application of margarine in roll cake was indicated that margarine obtained from this research given expansion higher (0.2 cm) compared to the commercial margarine. The results of organoleptic test of roll cake using margarine obtained from this study were provided the level of preference for the taste, texture and appearance were not significantly different compared to the commercial margarine. Thus, margarine made from RBDPO and RPO in this study had adequate quality and comparable to commercial products.

ABSTRAK

Pengembangan produk bakery memberikan dampak positif terhadap peningkatan konsumsi margarin. Selain itu, variasi formula margarin semakin diperlukan untuk pengembangan produk bakery yang beragam, dengan demikian produksi margarin cukup menjanjikan untuk dikembangkan pada skala industri kecil dan menengah (IKM). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat margarin dengan menggunakan minyak sawit (refined bleached deodorized palm oil, RBDPO) dan minyak sawit merah (red palm oil, RPO) serta aplikasinya dalam pembuatan bolu gulung. RPO digunakan sebagai pewarna alami dan pro-vitamin A, sehingga tidak perlu lagi menambahkan pewarna dan vitamin pada margarin. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan 3 tahapan meliputi: 1) formulasi margarin dengan mencampurkan antara RBDPO dan RPO pada rasio 97,5:2,5 – 85:15 melalui pendekatan sifat fisika kimia margarin komersial meliputi komposisi asam lemak, bilangan iod, titik leleh dan kandungan lemak padat, 2) optimasi produksi margarin menggunakan formula terbaik dari kegiatan 1 pada reaktor texturing skala 50 kg/batch dengan memvariasikan suhu media pendingin (5±2, 12±2, 20±2 °C) dan waktu proses (0, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 menit). Produk dianalisis kadar air, warna, bentuk, tekstur dan stabilitasnya selama penyimpanan, dan 3) aplikasi margarin dalam pembuatan bolu gulung dan uji organoleptiknya. Hasil pengembangan formulasi margarin menggunakan RBDPO dan RPO diperoleh formula yang setara dengan margarin pembanding pada rasio 95:5. Kondisi optimum proses skala 50 kg/batch yang menghasilkan margarin dengan tekstur dan stabilitas terbaik diperoleh pada suhu pendingin 5±2 °C atau 12±2 °C selama 30 menit. Aplikasinya pada bolu gulung menunjukkan bahwa margarin ini relatif baik dengan pengembangan bolu lebih tinggi 0,2 cm dibandingkan margarin pembanding. Hasil uji organoleptik bolu gulung menggunakan margarin ini memberikan tingkat kesukaan terhadap rasa, tekstur dan kenampakan tidak berbeda nyata dengan margarin pembanding. Dengan demikian, margarin yang dibuat dari RBDPO dan RPO pada penelitian ini memiliki kualitas memadai dan setara dengan produk komersial.


Keywords


Formulation; palm oil; red palm oil; texturisation; plastic fat

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9321

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