Characteristics of Biocellulose-Based Edible Film from Sago Wastewater (Metroxylon sago ROTTB.) on Various Glycerol Concentration

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.75154

Nur Arfa Yanti(1*), Sitti Wirdhana Ahmad(2), La Ode Ahmad Nur Ramadhan(3), Ardiansyah Ardiansyah(4), Indrawati Indrawati(5)

(1) Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Halu Oleo, Kampus Hijau Bumi Tridharma, Anduonohu Jl. H.E.A. Mokodompit, Kendari, South East Sulawesi 93231
(2) Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Halu Oleo, Kampus Hijau Bumi Tridharma, Anduonohu Jl. H.E.A. Mokodompit, Kendari, South East Sulawesi 93231
(3) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Halu Oleo, Kampus Hijau Bumi Tridharma, Anduonohu Jl. H.E.A. Mokodompit, Kendari, South East Sulawesi 93231
(4) Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Halu Oleo, Kampus Hijau Bumi Tridharma, Anduonohu Jl. H.E.A. Mokodompit, Kendari, South East Sulawesi 93231
(5) Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Halu Oleo, Kampus Hijau Bumi Tridharma, Anduonohu Jl. H.E.A. Mokodompit, Kendari, South East Sulawesi 93231
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This study aimed to investigate the the characteristics of biocellulose-based edible films from sago wastewater (Metroxylon sago ROTTB.) by incorporating varying concentrations of glycerol as a plasticizer. The edible films were made through a casting method using biocellulose from sago wastewater as the main ingredient. The treatments included the addition of varying glycerol concentrations to the edible films, namely 0.5, 1, and 1.5% (v/v), with three replications. The observed characteristics included physical (thickness, solubility, and moisture content of the film), mechanical (tensile strength, elongation percentage, and Young’s modulus/modulus of elasticity) with a universal testing machine, chemical structure using FT-IR, and surface morphological characteristics through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that increasing the glycerol concentration in the edible films improved the physical characteristics including thickness, solubility, and moisture. However, there was a decrease in the mechanical characteristics, namely tensile strength, elongation percentage, and Young’s modulus of the film. The main components of edible films found were cellulose polymers, as indicated by characteristic functional groups, such as free-OH groups, aliphatic C-H, C-O, and β-1,4-glycosidic bonds. The surface morphology of the biocellulose edible film without glycerol was smoother compared to those containing glycerol. Biocellulose-based edible films from sago wastewater with glycerol concentrations of 0.5% and 1% showed physical-mechanical characteristics that fulfilled the Japanese Industrial Standard (JSI), indicating the potential for application as food packaging. These results indicated that incorporation of glycerol has an effect on the characteristics of the biocellulose-based edible films from sago wastewater.


Keywords


Biocellulose; edible film; glycerol; sago wastewater

Full Text:

PDF


References

Abdullah, A. H. D., Putri, O. D., & Sugandi, W. W. (2019). Effects of Starch-Glycerol Concentration Ratio on Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Cassava Starch-Based Bioplastics. Jurnal Sains Materi Indonesia, 20(4), 162. https://doi.org/10.17146/jsmi.2019.20.4.5505

Alfatahillah, A., Fadhil, R., & Ratna, R. (2021). Karakteristik Edible Film Dengan Konsentrasi Gliserol Sebagai Plasticizer Berbasis Pati Umbi Talas. Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa Pertanian, 6(1), 44–52. https://doi.org/10.17969/jimfp.v6i1.16657

Anandito, R. B. K., Nurhartadi, E., & Bukhori, A. (2012). Pengaruh gliserol terhadap karakteristik edible fiilm berbahan dasar tepung jali (Coix lacryma-jobi L.). Jurnal Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, V(2), 17–23.

Asl, A.S., Mousavi, M., & Labbafi, M. (2017). Synthesis and Characterization of Carboxymethyl Cellulose from Sugarcane Bagasse. Journal of Food Processing & Technology, 08(08). https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7110.1000687

ASTM D638-14:2014. Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics; ASTM International: West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2014.

Atta, O. M., Manan, S., Ahmed, A. A. Q., Awad, M. F., Ul-Islam, M., Subhan, F., Ullah, M. W., & Yang, G. (2021). Development and characterization of yeast-incorporated antimicrobial cellulose biofilms for edible food packaging application. Polymers, 13(14). https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13142310

Ballesteros-Mártinez, L., Pérez-Cervera, C., & Andrade-Pizarro, R. (2020). Effect of glycerol and sorbitol concentrations on mechanical, optical, and barrier properties of sweet potato starch film. NFS Journal, 20(June), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nfs.2020.06.002

Caicedo, C., Díaz-Cruz, C. A., Jiménez-Regalado, E. J., & Aguirre-Loredo, R. Y. (2022). Effect of Plasticizer Content on Mechanical and Water Vapor Permeability of Maize Starch/PVOH/Chitosan Composite Films. Materials, 15(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041274

Díaz-Montes, E., & Castro-Muñoz, R. (2021). Edible films and coatings as food-quality preservers: An overview. Foods, 10(2), 1–26. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020249

Dick, M., Costa, T. M. H., Gomaa, A., Subirade, M., Rios, A. D. O., & Flôres, S. H. (2015). Edible film production from chia seed mucilage: Effect of glycerol concentration on its physicochemical and mechanical properties. Carbohydrate Polymers, 130, 198–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.05.040

Hammam, A. R. A. (2019). Technological, applications, and characteristics of edible films and coatings: a review. SN Applied Sciences, 1(6), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-0660-8

Ismaya, F. C., Fithriyah, N. H., & Hendrawati, T. Y. (2021). Pembuatan Dan Karakterisasi Edible Film Dari Nata De Coco Dan Gliserol. Jurnal Teknologi, 13(1), 81–88. https://dx.doi.org/10.24853/jurtek.13.1.81-88

Jafarzadeh, S., Alias, A. K., Ariffin, F., & Mahmud, S. (2018). Physico-mechanical and microstructural properties of semolina flour films as influenced by different sorbitol/glycerol concentrations. International Journal of Food Properties, 21(1), 983–995. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2018.1474056

JIS, Japanese Industrial Standard (2019). General rules of plastic films for food packaging. JIS Z 1707, Japanese Standard Associaton, Japan

Lan, W., He, L., & Liu, Y. (2018). Preparation and properties of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose/sodium alginate/chitosan composite film. Coatings, 8(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8080291

Lintang, M., Tandi, O., Layuk, P., Karouw, S., & Dirpan, A. (2021). Characterization edible films of sago with glycerol as a plasticizer. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 807(2). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/807/2/022070

Medina-Jaramillo, C., Gutiérrez, T. J., Goyanes, S., Bernal, C., & Famá, L. (2016). Biodegradability and plasticizing effect of yerba mate extract on cassava starch edible films. Carbohydrate Polymers, 151, 150–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.05.025

Nandane, A. S., & Jain, R. (2015). Study of mechanical properties of soy protein based edible film as affected by its composition and process parameters by using RSM. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(6), 3645–3650. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-014-1417-4

Nemet, N. T., Šošo, V. M., & Lazić, V. L. (2010). Effect of glycerol content and pH value of film-forming solution on the functional properties of protein-based edible films. Acta Periodica Technologica, 41, 57–67. https://doi.org/10.2298/APT1041057N

Partomo, H., & Rohaeti, E. (2015). Bioplastik Nata De Cassava Sebagai Bahan Edible Film Ramah Lingkungan. Jurnal Penelitian Saintek, 16(2), 172–190.

Pereda, M., Amica, G., & Marcovich, N. E. (2012). Development and characterization of edible chitosan/olive oil emulsion films. Carbohydrate Polymers, 87(2), 1318–1325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.09.019

Purnavita, S., Subandriyo, D. Y., & Anggraeni, A. (2020). Penambahan Gliserol terhadap Karakteristik Bioplastik dari Komposit Pati Aren dan Glukomanan. Metana, 16(1), 19–25. https://doi.org/10.14710/metana.v16i1.29977

Salsabila, A., & Ulfah, M. (2017). Karakteristik Ketebalan Edible Film Berbahan Dasar Bioselulosa Nata De Siwalan Dengan Penambahan Gliserol Characteristics of Edible Film Thickness of Bioselulosa Nata De Siwalan With Glycerol Addition. Bioma, 6(1), 1–9.

Sari, A.K., Majlan, E.H., Loh, K.S., Wong, W.Y., Alva, S., Khaerudini, D.S., & Yunus, R.M.(2022). Effect of acid treatments on thermal properties of bacterial cellulose produced from cassava liquid waste, Materials today: Proceedings, 57 (3), 1174-1178, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.10.130

Sitompul, A. J. W. S., & Zubaidah, E. (2017). Pengaruh jenis dan konsentrasi plasticizer terhadap sifat fisik edible film kolang kaling (Arenga pinnata). Jurnal Pangan Dan Agroindustri, 5(1), 13–25. https://www.jpa.ub.ac.id/index.php/jpa/article/download/494/372

Skoog, D.A., Holler, F.J., & Crouch, S.R. (2018). Principles of Instrumental Analysis (7th ed). Boston, USA: Cengage learning.

Wattimena, D., Ega, L., & Polnaya, F. J. (2016). Karakteristik edible film pati sagu alami dan pati sagu fosfat dengan penambahan gliserol. Jurnal Agritech, 36(3), 247–252. https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.16661

Yanti, N. A., Ahmad, S. W., Ambardini, S., Muhiddin, N. H., & Sulaiman, L. O. I. (2017). Screening of Acetic Acid Bacteria from Pineapple Waste for Bacterial Cellulose Production using Sago Liquid Waste. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 9(3), 387. https://doi.org/10.15294/biosaintifika.v9i3.10241

Yanti, N. A., Ahmad, S. W., & Muhiddin, N. H. (2018). Evaluation of inoculum size and fermentation period for bacterial cellulose production from sago liquid waste. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1116(5). https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1116/5/052076

Yanti, N. A., Ahmad, S. W., Muhiddin, N. H., Ramadhan, L. O. A. N., Suriana, & Walhidayah, T. (2021a). Characterization of bacterial cellulose produced by acetobacter xylinum strain lkn6 using sago liquid waste as nutrient source. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 24(3), 335–344. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2021.335.344

Yanti, N. A., Ahmad, S. W., Ramadhan, L. O. A. N., Jamili, Muzuni, Walhidayah, T., & Mamangkey, J. (2021b). Properties and application of edible modified bacterial cellulose film based sago liquid waste as food packaging. Polymers, 13(20), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13203570



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.75154

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 466 | views : 425

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2024 Nur Arfa Yanti

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

agriTECH has been Indexed by:


agriTECH (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


website statisticsView My Stats