Sifat Fisikokimia dan Profil Asam Lemak Minyak Ikan dari Kepala Kakap Merah (Lutjanus malabaricus)

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.47039

Desiana Nuriza Putri(1), Yessi Maulidhia Nugrahani Wibowo(2), Erika Novena Santoso(3*), Putri Romadhani(4)

(1) Jurusan Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Pertanian Peternakan, Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, Jl. Raya Tlogomas No. 246, Malang, Jawa Timur 65144
(2) 
(3) Jurusan Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Pertanian Peternakan, Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, Jl. Raya Tlogomas No. 246, Malang, Jawa Timur 65144
(4) Jurusan Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Pertanian Peternakan, Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, Jl. Raya Tlogomas No. 246, Malang, Jawa Timur 65144
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Red snapper processing industry (Lutjanus malabaricus) produces more than 50% solid waste and by-products, so the by-product of red snapper processing, viz., the fish head is a potential source of omega-3. This study aimed to determine the rendering method and extraction time, producing the best quality fish oil that is rich in omega-3 from the red snapper head. The samples were taken from a fish fillet industry in Pasuruan, East Java, Indonesia. Randomized Block Design (RBD) with two factors has been used to evaluate different rendering methods (wet and dry rendering) and extraction time (1, 2, and 3 hours) in triplicate. The results showed that the best fish oil was produced by wet rendering method in 1 hour of extraction time, achieving peroxide number 0.98 meq/kg, free fatty acid 1.02%, acid number 2.02%, extraction yield 9.02%, water content 4.22% (wb), brightness (L) 43.5, redness level (a) -0.9, and yellowish level (b) 2.7. The fish oil consisted of 31 types of fatty acids with palmitic acid as the major fatty acid. Additionally, the oil also contained omega-3 (14.02%) as well as AA, DHA, and EPA.

Keywords


Extraction; oil; omega-3; rendering



References

 

Aditia, P. R., Darmanto, Romadhon. (2014). Perbandingan Mutu Minyak Ikan Kasar yang diekstrak dari Berbagai Jenis Ikan yang Berbeda. Pengolahan dan Bioteknologi Hasil Perikanan, 3(3), 55-60. http://www.ejournal-s1.undip.ac.id/index.php/jpbhp

Afriyani, U. (2016). Profil Asam Lemak, Kolesterol dan Jaringan Skin of Fillet Ikan kakap Putih (Lates calcarifer) Segar dan Panggang. Institut Pertanian Bogor.

AOAC Official Method of Analysis. (2000). Oil and Fat. Chapter 41, 26-28

AOAC. (1995). Official Methods of Analysis of The Association of Analitycal Chemist. Washington D.C.

AOCS Official Method. (1993). Preparation of Methyl Esters of Long-Chain Fatty
acid
. Page 2-66

Crexi, V. T., Monte, M. L., Almeida, L., Soares, D. S., Antonio, L., & Pinto, A. (2010). Production and refinement of oil from carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) viscera. Food Chemistry, 119(3), 945–950. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.07.050

Deepika, D., Vr, V., Julia, P., Kc, S., Sheila, T., Heather, M., & Wade, M. (2014). Investigation on Oil Extraction Methods and its Influence on Omega-3 Content from Cultured Salmon. 5(12). https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7110.1000401

Edwar Z., Suyuthie H., Yerizel E., dan Sulastri E. (2011). Pengaruh Pemanasan terhadap Kejenuhan Asam Lemak Minyak Goreng Sawit dan Minyak Goreng Jagung. J Indon Med Assoc.Abbas, K. A., Mohamed, A., & Jamilah, B. (2009). Fatty acids in fish and beef and their nutritional values : A review. 7(October), 37–42.

Eka, B., & Rochima, E. (2016). Pengaruh Metode Rendering Terhadap Karakteristik Fisik , Kimia Dan Organoleptik Ekstrak Kasar Minyak Ikan Lele. VII(1), 1–5.

Estiasih T. (2009). Minyak Ikan, Teknologi dan Penerapannya untuk Pangan dan Kesehatan. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.

Fadillah, U. F. (2014). Characteristic Study of Coconut Oil Extracted by Dry or Hot Methods.

FAO. (1995). Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. Food and Agricultural Organization of The United Nations. Rome.

Fiori, L., Solana, M., Tosi, P., Manfrini, M., Strim, C., & Guella, G. (2012). Lipid profiles of oil from trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) heads , spines and viscera : Trout by-products as a possible source of omega-3 lipids ? Food Chemistry, 134(2), 1088–1095. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.03.022

Hastarini. (2013). Karakteristik minyak ikan dari limbah pengolahan filet ikan patin siam (pangasius hypopthalmus) dan patin jambal (pangasius djambal). Jurnal Agritech Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian UGM, 32(4). https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9584

Husain, R., Suparmo, Harmayani, E., & Hidayat, C. (2016). Kinetics Oxidation of Tuna Fish Oil ( Thunus Sp ) during Storage. 36(2).

Ifa, L., Teknologi, F., Universitas, I., Indonesia, M., Artiningsih, A., & Indonesia, U. M. (2018). PEMBUATAN KITOSAN DARI SISIK IKAN KAKAP MERAH. (May), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.33536/jcpe.v3i1.194

IFOS. (2011). Fish oil purity standards. http://www.omegavia.com/best-fishoilsupplement-3.

Istiqlaal, S. (2018). ( Thunnus albacares ) Extraction and Characteristics of Tuna ( Thunnus albacares ) Bone Oil. 141–152.

Jayathilakan, K., K. Sultana, K. Radhakrisna, and A. Bawa. (2012). Utilization of Byproducts and Waste Materials from Meat, Poultry and Fish Processing Industries: A review. J. Food Sci. Technol. 49: 278–293.

Julaikha, A. (2014). Karakteristik Minyak Ikan dari Belly Flap Patin Siam (Pangasius Hypopthalmus) pada Berbagai Tahap Proses Pemurnian. Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Kamini, Suptijah, P., Santoso, J., & Sh, S. (2016). Extraction by Dry Rendering Methode and Characterization Fish Oil of Catfish Viscera Fat by Product of Smooked Fish Processing, 19. https://doi.org/10.17844/jphpi.2016.19.3.196

KKP .(2018). KKP 2018.pdf.

Leiva, A. (2018). Characterization of the animal by-product meal industry in Costa Rica : Manufacturing practices through the production chain and food safety. (March). https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pey058/4942568

Maulana, I. T., Sukraso, & Damayanti, S. (2014). Kandungan asam lemak dalam minyak ikan indonesia. Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis 8(1): 121-130. http://itk.fpik.ipb.ac.id/ej_itkt61

Mohanarangan, A. B. (2012). Extraction of omega-3 fatty acids from atlantic herring ( Clupea harengus ). Dalhousie University

Nazir, N., Diana, A., & Sayuti, K. (2017). Physicochemical and Fatty Acid Profile of Fish Oil from Head of Tuna ( Thunnus albacares ) Extracted from Various Extraction Method. 7(2), 709–715.

Nimal Ratnayake, W.M. et.all. (2006). Evaluasi of the CP-Sil 88 dan SP-2560 GC columns Used in
Recently Approved AOCS Official Method Ce 1h-05 : Determination of Cis, trans,
saturated, monosaturated and polyunsaturated Fatty Acid in Vegetable or Non-ruminant
Animal Oils and Fat by Capillary GLC Method
. Jurnal AOCS, Vol.83, no.6

Qaishum dkk. (2011). (2013). Pengaruh Komposisi Katalis H-Zeolit pada Proses Pembuatan Plastisizer Menggunakan Minyak Limbah Ikan Patin dan Isobutanol.

Rubio-rodríguez, N., Diego, S. M. De, Beltrán, S., Jaime, I., Sanz, M. T., & Rovira, J. (2012). Supercritical fluid extraction of fish oil from fish by-products : A comparison with other extraction methods. 109, 238–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.10.011

Sabar, J., Feti F., Johnly A. R. (2015). Karakterisasi Minyak Ikan dari Pemurnian Limbah Ikan Tuna dengan Zeolit secara Kromatografi Kolom. Jurnal MIPA UNSRAT online 4 (2) 161-164

Sanger Natalia Winly, Pontoh Julius, Momuat Lidya. (2018). Komposisi Kimia Asam Lemak pada Ikan Kakap Merah (Lutjanus). Chem. Prog. Vol. 11 No.2

Saraswati. (2013). Pemurnian Minyak Ikan Lemuru (Sardinella lemuru) menggunakan Sentrifugasi dan Adsorben Bentonit. Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Sari, R. N., Sediadi, B., Utomo, B., & Basmal, J. (2016). Refining of Pangasius Oil from Fish Smoking By-products. 171–182.

Sartika, D. R. A. (n.d.). Pengaruh Asam Lemak Jenuh , Tidak Jenuh dan Asam Lemak Trans terhadap Kesehatan. 16424.

Sindt, G. L. (n.d.). Environmental issues in the rendering industry Gregory L. Sindt, P.E. Environmental Engineer Bolton and Menk, Inc.

SNI 01-2891-1992. Cara uji Makanan dan Minuman.

Suroso, A. S. (2013). Kualitas Minyak Goreng Habis Pakai Ditinjau dari Bilangan Peroksida, Bilangan Asam dan Kabar Air. Jurnal Kefarmasian Indonesia, 3(2):77-88

Thammapat, P., Raviyan, P., & Siriamornpun, S. (2010). Proximate and fatty acids composition of the muscles and viscera of Asian catfish ( Pangasius bocourti ). Food Chemistry, 122(1), 223–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.02.065

Sarungallo, Z. L. (2015). Pengaruh metode ekstraksi terhadap mutu kimia dan komposisi asam lemak minyak buah merah (Pandanus conoideus). Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian, 24(3).



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.47039

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 324 | views : 1345

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2020 agriTECH

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

agriTECH has been Indexed by:


agriTECH (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


website statisticsView My Stats