Effects of Different Weather Conditions and Addition of Mangosteen Peel Powder on Chemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Coconut Sap

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.29844

Pepita Haryanti(1*), Supriyadi Supriyadi(2), Djagal Wiseso Marseno(3), Umar Santoso(4)

(1) Jenderal Soedirman University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Technology, Jl. Dr. Soeparno, Grendeng, Purwokerto, Central Java 53122
(2) Gadjah Mada University, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Jl. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Gadjah Mada University, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Jl. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(4) Gadjah Mada University, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Jl. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Coconut sap is sweet, oyster-white and translucent liquid which can be obtained by tapping coconut flowers for 8  ̶  12 hours. Since it contains sugar with nearly neutral pH, coconut sap is highly susceptible to spontaneous fermentation. In order to maintain the quality of the sap during the tapping process, coconut farmers usually add preservative substances. The preservatives can be produced either naturally, such as mixtures of lime, mangosteen peel and sliced jackfruit wood, or synthetic one, such as sodium metabisulphite. The chemical properties of coconut sap might be affected by weather conditions during the tapping process. This research aimed to determine the effect of weather conditions during tapping process and variations of mangosteen peel powder concentration on the chemical properties and antioxidant activity of the coconut sap. The results showed that the optimum preservative concentration of mangosteen peel powder was 0.84 g/L of coconut sap which was tapped in sunny weather condition. This treatment yielded sap with chemical properties i.e. pH value of 6.7; total soluble solids of 16.2 °brix; water content of 85.62%; reducing sugar of 0.04 g/100 g; sucrose content of 13.64 g/100 g; total free amino acids of 0.1738 g/100 g; total phenolic of 323.23 mgGAE/100 g; and vitamin C of 26.06 mg/100 g. The antioxidant activity of this treatment was 34.39 % RSA evaluated by DPPH method, this value, was relatively similar to that of the addition of 0.28 and 0.56 g/L mangosteen peel powder. The coconut sugar produced had reducing sugar of 5.01 g/100 g; total sugar of 86.50 g/100 g; total phenolic content of 470 mgGAE/100 g; browning index of 16254 IU (ICUMSA); and antioxidant activity of 61.05% RSA.


Keywords


Antioxidant activity; coconut sap; mangosteen peel powder

Full Text:

PDF


References

AOAC. (2005). Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. (W. Horwitz & W. Latimer, George, Eds.) (18th ed.). Maryland: AOAC International.

Asikin, Y., Kamiya, A., Mizu, M., Takara, K., Tamaki, H., & Wada, K. (2014). Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage. Food Chemistry, 149, 170–177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.10.089.

Borse, B. B., Jagan, L., Rao, M., Ramalakshmi, K., & Raghavan, B. (2007). Chemical composition of volatiles from coconut sap (neera) and effect of processing. Food Chemistry, 101, 877–880. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.02.026.

BSN. (1995). SNI 01-3743-1995 tentang Gula palma. Badan Standarisasi Nasional.

Choong, C., Anzian, A., Sapawi, C. W., & Hussin, M. (2016). Characterization of Sugar from Arenga pinnata and Saccharum officinarum sugars. International Food Research Journal, 23(4), 1642–1652.

El-Naggar, A. H., & Swedan, E. A. (2009). Effect of Light Intensity and Amino Acid Tryptophan on The Growth and Flowering of Amaryllis (Hippeastrum vittatum, Herb.) Plants. Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 8(1), 22–42.

Hariharan, B., Singaravadivel, K., & Alagusundaram, K. (2014). Effect of Food Grade Preservatives on the Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Coconut Toddy during Fermentation. Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 4(5), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9600.1000299.

Haryanti, P., Supriyadi, Marseno, D. W., & Santoso, U. (2017). Chemical Properties of Coconut Sap Obtained at Different Tapping Time and Addition of Preservatives. The International Journal Of Science & Technoledge, 5(3), 52–59. Retrieved from www.theijst.com.

Hebbar, K. B., Arivalagan, M., Manikantan, M. R., Mathew, A. C., Thamban, C., Thomas, G. V, & Chowdappa, P. (2015). Coconut inflorescence sap and its value addition as sugar – collection techniques , yield, properties and market perspective. Current Science, 109(8), 1411–1417.

Lantemona, H., Abadi, A. L., Rachmansyah, A., & Pontoh, J. (2013). Impact of Altitude and Seasons to Volume , Brix Content , and Chemical Composition of Aren Sap in North Sulawesi. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 4(2), 42–48.

Miller, G. L. (1959). Use of DinitrosaIicyIic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Analitical Chemistry, 31(3), 426–428.

Naknean, P., Meenune, M., & Roudaut, G. (2010). Characterization of palm sap harvested in Songkhla province , Southern Thailand. International Food Research Journal, 17, 977–986.

Nivetha, S., & Roy, D. V. (2015). Antioxidant activity and antimicrobial studies on Garcinia Mangostana. American Journal of Biological and Pharmaceutical Research, 2(3), 129–134.

Palakawong, C., Sophanodora, P., Pisuchpen, S., & Phongpaichit, S. (2010). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of crude extracts from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) parts and some essential oils. International Food Research Journal, 17, 583–589.

Payet, B., Sing, A. S. C., & Smadja, J. (2005). Assessment of Antioxidant Activity of Cane Brown Sugars by ABTS and DPPH Radical Scavenging Assays : Determination of Their Polyphenolic and Volatile Constituents. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 10074–10079.

Xia, Q., Li, R., Zhao, S., Chen, W., Chen, H., Xin, B., … Tang, M. (2011). Chemical composition changes of post-harvest coconut inflorescence sap during natural fermentation. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(66), 14999–15005. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB10.2602.

Yao, L., Xu, L., Jiang, Y., Caffin, N., D’Arcy, B., Singanusong, R., … Xu, Y. (2006). Compositional analysis of teas from Australian supermarkets. Food Chemistry, 94, 115–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.11.009.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.29844

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 541 | views : 575

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 Agritech

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Agritech has been Indexed by:


Agritech (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


website statisticsView My Stats