Effect of organic fertilizers on nutrients content and essential oil composition of savory (Satureja hortensis L.)

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.28324

Behrooz Esmaielpour(1*), Mahdi Rahmanian(2), Surur Khorramdel(3), Hojjat Gharavi(4)

(1) Associate Pprofessor , College of Agriculture and natural resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran.
(2) Graduated MSc student of Horticultural science, College of Agriculture and natural resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran.
(3) Associate Pprofessor, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
(4) College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Application of organic fertilizers in the production of plants is aimed to eliminate or substantially reduce the use of chemical inputs and improve the growth and quality of plants. For instance, in present study, the effect of vermicompost and spent mushroom compost application on nutritional status and essential oil components of summer Savory (Saturejahortensis L.) was investigated. This experiment was conducted in the research greenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture at Mohaghegh Ardabili University using a layout of completely randomized design with five replications on Savory in 2014. Experimental treatments included different substrates that contained vermicompost, washed and unwashed spent mushroom compost in five levels (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Percent v/v). After flowering, the plants were harvested and parameters such as leaf area, leaf and plant dry weight, chlorophyll index of leaf and N, P, K, and Ca content and essential oil component of plants were measured. The results showed that the effect of organic substrates on macronutrient content and savory’s growth parameters was significant. The highest Nitrogen content (6.3%) and Phosphorus (0.98%) in savory shoot was obtained in a substrate supplemented with 40% vermicompost. Plants grown in the media containing 30% of vermicompost and 50% of washed spent mushroom compost (SMC) have higher potassium (3.19%) and calcium (2.48%) content, respectively. The lowest nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in the aerial part was obtained in the control treatment. Moreover, application of organic fertilizers significantly affected on savory’s essential oil percentage and compounds composition. The highest and lowest essential oil contents were obtained in plants in substrates containing 30 % of vermicompost and unwashed spent mushroom compost respectively. The main components of essential oil were carvacrol and gamma-trepenine. The highest level of carvacrol (62.10) and gamma-trepenine (32.05) were obtained in plants in substrates containing 40 and 20% of washed spent mushroom respectively.

Keywords


Essential oil; leaf area index, nutrients, savory, vermicompost

Full Text:

PDF


References

Abbaszadeh, B., and Zakerian, F. )2016(. Elements uptake in Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) under the effect of mycorrhiza and Piriformospora indica and vermicompost. Iran. J.Medici Arom Plants. 32: 47-59. (In Persian)

Adinarayana, V., and Kumar, S.T. )2006(. Effect of applied phosphorus and vermicompost on removal of heavy metals by leafy vegetables in polluted soil. 18th World Congress of Soil science, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Ahmadabadi, Z., Ghajarsepanlo, M., and Bahmanyar, A. )2011(. Effect of vermicompost application on amount of microelements in soil and in the medicinal plants of Borage (Borago officinalis). J. Crop Improv. 13: 1-12. (In Persian)

Anwar, M., Patra, D.D., Chand, S. and Khanuja, S.P.S. (2005(. Effect of organic manures and inorganic fertilizer on growth, herb and oil yield, nutrient accumulation, and oil quality of French Basil. Commun Soi Sci Plan Anal. 36: 1737-1746.

Arancon, N., Edwards, C., Yardim, E., Oliver, T., Byrne, R., and Keeney, G. (2007). Suppression of two-spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae), Mealybug (Pseudococcus sp.) and Aphid (Myzus persicae) populations and damage by Vermicomposts. Crop Prot. 26: 29-39.

Arthur, E., Cornelis, W., and Razzaghi, F. (2012). Compost Amendment to sandy soil affects soil properties and greenhouse Tomato productivity. Compost Sci Util. 20: 215-221.

Asghari, M., Habibi, D., and Brogerdi, G.N. (2012). Effect of Vermicompost, Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Humic Acid on Growth Mentha piperita L., in Central Province. Iran J Agron Plant Breed. 7: 41 – 54. (In Persian)

Atiyeh, R. M., Arancon, N., Edwards, C. A., and Metzger, J. D. (2000). Influence of earthworm processed pig manure on the growth and yield of greenhouse Tomatoes. Bioresour Technol. 75: 175-180.

Bachman, G. R., and Metzger, J. D. (2007). Growth of bedding plants in commercial potting substrate amended with vermicompost. Bioresour Technol. 99: 3155–3161.

Betnal, M. P., Navarro, A. F., Sanchez-Monedero, M. A., Roig, A., and Cegarra, J. (1998). Influence of sewage sludge compost stability and maturity on carbon and nitrogen mineralization in soil. Soil Biol Biochem. 30: 305-313.

Chong, C., Cline, R., Rinker, D., and Allen, O. (1991). Growth and mineral nutrient status of containerized woody species in media amended with Spent Mushroom Compost. J Am Soc Hortic Sci. 116: 242-247.

Courtney, R., and Mullen, G. (2008). Soil quality and Barley growth as influenced by the land application of two compost types. Bioresou Technol. 99: 2918-2913.

Darzi, M. T., and Haj Seyed Hadi, M. R. (2015). The Role of Separated and Integrated Application of Organic and Biological Inputs on N, P, K Concentration, Essential Oil of Dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.). J Sustain Agri Prod Sci. 26: 101-113. (In Persian)

Emami, A., Shams Ardakani, M. R., and Mehregan, I. (2004). Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. Traditional Medicine & Materia Medica Research Center (TMRC), Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. pp: 449. (In Persian)

Frankenberger, W. T., and Mohammad Arshad, J. R. (1995). Phytohormones in Soils: Microbial Production and Function. Marcel and Decker, New York. Pp: 503.

Gholami Sharafkhane, E., Jahan, M., Banayan Avval, M., Koocheki, A., and Rezvani Moghaddam, P. (2015). The effect of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on yield, essential oil percentage and some agroecological characteristics of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) under Mashhad conditions. J Agroeco. 7: 179-189. (In Persian)

Gonani, Z., Riahy, H., and Sharifi, K. (2011). Impact of using leached spent mushroom compost as a partial growing media for horticultural plants. J Plant Nutr. 34: 337-344.

Hadian, J., Tabatabaei, S M F., Naghavi, M R., Jamzad, Z. and Ramak-Masoumi, T. (2008). Genetic diversity of Iranian accessions of Satureja hortensis L. based on horticultural traits and RAPD markers. Sci Horti. 115: 196-202.

Hidalgo, P., Sindoni, M., Matta, F., and Nagel, D. H. (2002). Earthworm Castings Increase Germination Rate and Seedling Development of Cucumber. Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station.

Hossaini, S.M., Aghaalikhani, M., Sefidkon, F., and Ghalavand A. (2015). Vegetative and essential oil yields of savory (Satureja sahendica Bornm.) affected by vermicompost and Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexux L.) competition. Iran J Medicin Arom Plants. 31: 342 – 356. (In Persian)

Joshi, R., Singh, J., and Vig, A.P. (2015). Vermicompost as an effective organic fertilizer and biocontrol agent: effect on growth, yield and quality of plants. Rev. Environ Sci Biotech. 14: 137–159.

Kiani, Z., Esmaeilpour, B., Hadian, J., Soltani Toolarood, A.A., and Fathololumi, S. (2014). Effect of organic fertilizers on growth properties nutrient absorption and essential oil yield of medicinal plant of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). J Plan Prod. 21: 63-80. (In Persian)

Kubilay Onal, M., and Topcuoglu, B. (2007). The effect of spent mushroom compost on the dry matter mineral content of pepper (Piper Nigrum) grown in greenhouse. Akdeniz University Vocational High School of Technical Sciences. Turkey. Tropentag. 9-11.

Locanzo, C., Arnold, J., Tato, A., Zaller, J. G., and Dominguez J. (2009). Compost and vermicompost a nursury pot component: effect on tomato plant growth and morphology. Span J Agric Res. 7: 944-951.

Loomis, W. D., and Corteau, R. (1972). Essential oil biosynthesis. Recently Advance Phytochem. 6: 147-185.

Mafakheri, S., Omidbaigi, R., Sefidkon, F., and Rejali, F. (2012). Effect of vermicompost, biophosphate and Azotobacter on quantity and quality of essential oil of (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) Iran J Medici Arom Plants. 27: 599-605. (In Persian)

Makkizadeh Tafti, M., Chaichi, M., Nasrollahzadeh, S., and Khavazi, K. (2012). Effect of different types of nitrogen fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Satureja hortensis L. Iran J Medici Arom Plants. Plants. 28: 330-341. (In Persian)

Mcginnis, M., Cooke, A., Bilderback, T., and Lorscheider, M. (2003). Organic fertilizers for basil transplant meadow bromegrass. Crop Sci. 30: 967-970.

Medina, E., Paredets, C., Bustamante, M.A., Moral, R., and Moreno-Caselles, J. (2012). Relationships between soil physico-chemical and biological properties in a soil amended with Spent Mushroom Substrate. Geoder. 173: 152–161.

Mir Soheyl, M. and Gholami M R. (2008). Vermicompost and its production. J Olive. 186:43-44.

Muscolo, A., Bovalo, F., Gionfriddo, F., and Nardi, F. (1999). Earthworm humic matter produces auxin-like effects on Daucus carota cell growth and nitrate metabolism. Soil Biol Biochem. 31: 1303-1311.

Naiji, M., and Souri, M.K. (2015). Evaluation of growth and yield of Savory (Satureja hortensis) under organic and biological fertilizers toward organic production. Plant Prod. 38:3. 93-103.

Neamati, H., Azizi, M., Mohammadi, S., and Karimpour, S. (2014). The study on the effect of spraying with different concentrations of vermicompost extract (vermiwash) on the morphological traits, yield and percentage of essential oil of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.). J.Horti Sci. 27: 411-417. (In Persian)

Nooshkam, A., Majnoun Hosseini, N., Hadian, J., and Jahansooz, M. R. (2015). Study the effects of biological and chemical fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Savory species (Satureja khuzestanica Jamzad). J.Crop Prod. 8: 87-103. (In Persian)

Omidbeigi, R. (2000). Approaches to Production and Processing of Medicinal plants, vol. (3). Beh Nashr Publisher, Mashhad. (In Persian).

Omidbaigi, R., Hejazi, M. (2004). Essential oil content and composition of Satureja hortensis of two different origins. J. Ess Oil Bear Plants. 7: 175-178.

Peregrina, F., Larrieta, C.,Martin, I., Martinez-Vidaurre, J.M., and Garcia –Escudero, E. (2009). Effect of application spent mushroom compost as organic amendment in vineyard soil of the origin denomination rioja (Spain). Geophysical Res Ab. 11: 368-5.

Philippoussis, A., Zervakis, G.I., Diamantpoulou, P., Papadopoulou, K., and Ehaliotis, C. (2004). Use of spent mushroom compost as a substrate for plant growth and against plant infections caused by Phytophthora. Mushroom Sci. 16: 579-584.

Pradha, M.L., Jayraaj, I.A., Jayraaj, R., and Rao, D.S. (2007). Effect of vermicompost on growth parameters of selected vegetable and medicinal plants. Asian J Microbiol Biotech Environ Sci. 9: 321-326.

Ratti, N., Kumar, S., Verma, H.N., and Gautam, S.P. (2001). Improvement in bioavailability of tricalcium phosphate to (Cymbopogon martinii var.) motia by Rhizobacteria, AMF and Azospirillum inoculation.  Microbiol. Res 156: 145-149.

Rezaee Moadab, A., and Nabavi Klat, S. M. (2012). The Effect of Vermicompost and Biological Fertilizer Application on Seed Yield and Yield Components of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). J.Crop Ecophysio 6: 157-170. (In Persian)

Rezaeifar, P., and Alizadeh Oskuie, P. (2015). Effects of Vermicompost and Magnetic Water on growth of Ocimum basilicum. Advan..Biores 6: 99-103.

Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Aminghafori, A., Bakhshes, S., Jafari, L. (2013). The effect of organic and biofertilizers on some quantitative characteristics and essential oil content of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L.). Agroeco 5: 105-112. (In Persian).

Sangwan, P., Kaushik, C.P. and Garg, V.K. (2008). Vermiconversion of industrial sludge for recycling the nutrients. Bioresour Technol 99: 8699–8704

Sefidkon, F., Jamzad, Z., and Barazandeh, M. (2005). Essential oil of (Satureja bachtiarica) Bunge, A potential source of Carvacrol. Iran J Medici Arom Plants 20: 425 - 39.

Sharma, A. K. (2002). Biofertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture, A handbook of Organic Farming. Agrobios, India, 300p.

Singh, U.P., Maurya, S., and Singh, D.P. (2003). Antifungal activity and induced resistance in pea by aqueous extract of vermicompost and for control of Powdery Mildew of Pea and Balsam. J. Plant Dis Protect 110: 544-553.

Theunissen, J., Ndakidemi, P. A., and Laubscher, C. P. (2010). Potential of vermicompost produced from plant waste on the growth and nutrient status in vegetable production. International Journal of the Physical Sciences. 5: 1964-1973.

Tiwari, S.C., B.K. Tiwari, and R.R. Mishra. (1989). Microbial populations, enzymes activities and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium enrichment in earthworm casts and in surrounding soil of a Pineapple plantation. Biol Fertil Soils 8:178–182.

Yousefi, S. M., Chalavi, V., and Zangi, S. (2015). The effect of different levels of vermicompost and photoperiod on greenhouse production of medicinal plant Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni). J Sci Technol Green Cult 6: 31-39



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.28324

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 367 | views : 347

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 Agritech

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Agritech has been Indexed by:


Agritech (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


website statisticsView My Stats