Daya Hambat Asap Cair Tempurung Kelapa terhadap Pertumbuhan Jamur pada Kopra Selama Penjemuran dan Kualitas Minyak yang Dihasilkan

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9631

Suharyani Amperawati(1*), Purnama Darmadji(2), Umar Santoso(3)

(1) Program Studi Teknologi Hasil Perkebunan, Jurusan Teknologi Pertanian, Politeknik Negeri Pontianak, Jl. Akhmad Yani Pontianak 78124
(2) Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Direct preservation/smoking method has been done traditionally to inhibit the growth of fungi during drying and also storage of copra. By this method copra has black or brown black in color because of the deposit of tar and the smoke fl avor is too strong, and the process can caused air pollution. The aim of this research was to know the differences of pirolisate infl uence and redistilate liquid smoke of coconut shell in depressing growth of fungi during drying, dose determines and soaking time of fresh coconut and to know infl uence liquid smoke of coconut shell to copra quality and coconut oil. The quality of coconut was uniform and classifi ed as grade A quality. This research consisted of 3 factors, that was : type of liquid smoke (pirolisat and redistilat), smoke dose (2 %, 6 %, and 10 %), soaking time (5, 10, and 15 minutes). Then by contrast is applied control treatment without soaking with liquid smoke. Copra which have low level of fungi attack and control were extracted for oil that analyzed for its. The result of fungi attack indicated as follows; soaking with pirolisate highest attack 31,4 % (treatment 2 %, 5 minute), and low of 0 % (treatment 30 %, 15 minutes; and 10 %, 30 minutes); while soaking with redistilate highest attack 34,72 % (treatment of 2 %, 30 minutes), and low of 0 % (treatment of 10 %, 15 minutes; and 10 %, 30 minutes). At contamination average control of fungi attack is 80,85 %. The result of coconut oil showing that treatment applied in the redistilate liquid smoke from coconut shell with 10 % concentration and 30 minutes soaking time showed better result compared to control and other treatment with water content 2.45 %; free fatty acid contents 0.26 %; peroxide number 0.31 meg/kg; specifi c weight of 0.9130, refractive index 1.452, and color scale 0.7.

 ABSTRAK

Metode pengawetan/pengasapan langsung secara tradisional terhadap kopra menyebabkan kopra yang dihasilkan berwarna coklat kehitaman karena endapan tar yang terlalu banyak, fl avor asapnya kuat dan prosesnya dapat menyebabkan polusi udara. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan pengaruh pirolisat dan redistilat asap cair tempurung kelapa dalam menekan pertumbuhan jamur selama pengeringan, menentukan dosis dan lama perendaman daging buah kelapa, dan mengetahui pengaruh asap cair tempurung kelapa terhadap kualitas kopra dan minyak kelapa. Kualitas kelapa dipilih yang seragam, yaitu yang memiliki kualifi kasi grade A. Penelitian ini terdiri dari 3 faktor, yaitu: jenis asap cair (pirolisat dan redistilat), dosis asap cair (2 %, 6 %, dan 10 %), lama perendaman (5, 10, dan 15 menit). Perlakuan kontrol tanpa perendaman dengan asap cair sebagai pembanding. Kopra dengan tingkat serangan jamur terendah dan kontrol diekstrak minyak kelapanya kemudian dianalisis. Persentase serangan jamur terhadap kopra selama proses pengeringan dengan matahari langsung yaitu: perendaman dengan pirolisat serangan tertinggi sebesar 31,4 % (perlakuan 2 %, 5 menit), dan terendah 0 % (perlakuan 10 %, 15 menit; dan 10 %, 30 menit); sedangkan perendaman dengan redistilat serangan tertinggi 34,72 % (perlakuan 2 %, 30 menit), dan terendah 0 % (perlakuan 10 %, 15 menit; dan 10 %, 30 menit). Pada kontrol rata-rata cemaran serangan jamur sebesar 80,85 %. Hasil analisis minyak kelapa menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan perendaman dengan redistilat asap cair tempurung kelapa pada konsentrasi 10 % selama 30 menit memperlihatkan hasil yang paling baik dibandingkan dengan kontrol dan perlakuan lainnya dengan kadar air 2,45 %; kadar asam lemak bebas 0,26 %; angka peroksida 0,31 meg/kg ; bobot jenis 0,9130; indeks bias 1,452, dan skala warna 0,7.


Keywords


Liquid smoke; coconut shell; fungi; copra; coconut oil

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9631

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Agritech (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


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