Optimasi Media Fermentasi Aspergillus oryzae, Penghasil Antijamur Patogen Buah Kakao (Phytophthora palmivora)

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9343

Rizka Aulia Rahma(1*), Simon Bambang Widjanarko(2), Rofiq Sunaryanto(3), Yunianta Yunianta(4)

(1) Program Pascasarjana, Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya Malang, Jl. Veteran Malang 65145
(2) Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya Malang, Jl. Veteran Malang 65145
(3) Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi Serpong, Gedung 630 Komplek Puspiptek, Cisauk, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15314
(4) Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya Malang, Jl. Veteran Malang 65145
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Indonesia was known as a producer and exporter of cacao, but nowadays Indonesia had an issue in cacao production caused by microorganisms (Phytophtora palmivora) that capable of reducing the amount of cacao production each year. This study follows up a previous study that had found compounds that are actively against at Phytophtora palmivora from Aspergillus oryzae metabolites. In this study the compound will be produced in greater numbers to optimize fermentation medium. The first stage was conducted to determine the profile of the active compound and to analyze the best carbon, nitrogen source for Aspergillus oryzae fermentation medium. The second stage was designed by using Response Surface Method (RSM) with Central Composite Design (CCD) to optimize two variables in the fermentation medium, glucose concentration (the best carbon source) and the concentration of peptone (best nitrogen source). The expected response was the most active compounds percentage of the area. Data analysis was performed by Design Expert DX 7.1.5 program. The first stage of this study presumed that Tenuazonic acid compounds with a molecular weight of 198.1126 gram.mol was an antifungal compound produced by Aspergillus oryzae fungus to prevent Phythopthora palmivora fungus pathogens cacao pods. In addition the results are that glucose was the best carbon source (mean % relative area of  antifungal compounds: 85.39%) and that peptone was selected as the best source of nitrogen (mean % relative area of  antifungal compounds: 91.07%). The second stage showed the optimum conditions of fermentation medium antifungal Aspergillus oryzae was the composition of glucose 35.25 g/L and peptone 16.7 g/L. The combination of both compositions would yield a mean response of laboratory data % relative area of antifungal compounds 91.2217% and the estimated value (prediction) by Design Expert models 92.2936%. Difference in the estimated values (the response of the model) to the value of the results of response in laboratory experiments at 1.1614%, then it could be concluded that the model used was appropriate and able to explain the applied experimental data.

ABSTRAK

Indonesia dikenal sebagai produsen dan eksportir buah kakao, tetapi saat ini Indonesia memiliki masalah dalam produksi buah kakao dikarenakan adanya mikroorganisme penyebab penyakit (Phytophtora palmivora) yang menurunkan jumlah produksi buah kakao tiap tahunnya. Penelitian ini melanjutkan penelitian sebelumnya yang telah menemukan senyawa aktif yang bersifat antijamur terhadap Phytophtora palmivora dari metabolit Aspergillus oryzae. Pada penelitian ini senyawa tersebut akan diproduksi dalam jumlah yang lebih banyak melalui optimasi media fermentasi. Penelitian tahap I dilakukan untuk mengetahui profil senyawa aktif yang dominan dan mendapatkan sumber karbon, nitrogen yang terbaik untuk media fermentasi Aspergillus oryzae. Penelitian tahap II dirancang menggunakan Response Surface Method (RSM) dengan Central Composite Design (CCD) untuk mengoptimasi 2 variabel dalam media fermentasi yaitu konsentrasi glukosa (sumber karbon terbaik) dan konsentrasi pepton (sumber nitrogen terbaik). Respon yang diinginkan adalah persentase luas area senyawa aktif yang paling besar. Analisis data dilakukan dengan program Design Expert D.X. 7.1.5. Tahap I penelitian ini menduga bahwa senyawa Tenuazonic acid dengan bobot molekul 198.1126 gram.mol-1 adalah senyawa antijamur yang dihasilkan jamur Aspergillus oryzae untuk jamur patogen buah kakao Phythopthora palmivora. Selain itu, diperoleh hasil bahwa glukosa merupakan sumber karbon terbaik (rerata % relatif luas area senyawa antijamur: 85.39%) dan pepton dipilih sebagai sumber nitrogen yang terbaik (rerata % relatif luas area senyawa antijamur: 91,07%). Penelitian tahap II menghasilkan kondisi optimum media fermentasi antijamur dari A. oryzae dengan komposisi glukosa sebesar 35,25 gram/L dan pepton sebesar 16,7 gram/L. Kombinasi kedua komposisi tersebut akan menghasilkan data laboratorium respon rerata % relatif luas area senyawa antijamur sebesar 91,2217% dan nilai dugaan (prediksi) oleh model Design Expert sebesar 92,2936%. Perbedaan nilai dugaan (respon dari model) dengan nilai respon hasil percobaan di laboratorium sebesar 1,1614% sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa model yang digunakan telah sesuai dan mampu menjelaskan data percobaan yang digunakan.


Keywords


Cacao; Aspergillus oryzae; Phytophtora palmivora; active compound; optimization of fermentation medium; Response Surface Method (RSM)

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9343

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Agritech (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


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