Pengaruh Tingkat Kerusakan Jalan Perkebunan dan Posisi Tandan Buah Segar di Bak Truk terhadap Kinerja Angkutan Kelapa Sawit

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.12867

Andreas Wahyu Krisdiarto(1*), Lilik Sutiarso(2)

(1) Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Stiper, Jl. Nangka II Maguwoharjo, Depok, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55282
(2) Jurusan Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Oil Palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) transportation is a vital step in post harvest process. Transportation condition may affects the quantity and quality of FFB as a palm oil factory raw material. Due to many estate roads are not at ideal condition, this research was addressed to explore the relationship between road damage level and position of FFB in truck bin to transportation performance. Transportation performance indicator were leftover fruit, level of released fruitlets, fruits bruise index, and free fatty acid (FFA) content. The research divided into two stage. The first was on transportation performance in collection road. The second was FFB transportation from fruit collection point to factory, which was treated on good, moderate, and bad road. Observation was done to the FFB at bottom, middle and upper layer of truck bin. The transportation performace indicators were analized by Anova, and continued by Tukey method analysis if there were differentces among treatments. Result showed that level of road damage was significantly affect transportation performace indicator i.e level of leftover fruits, but it was not significantly affect level of released fruitlets, fruits bruise index, and FFA content. Meanwhile, FFB position in truck bin influenced level of fruitlets releasing, and significantly influenced fruits bruise index.

ABSTRAK

Pengangkutan tandan buah segar (TBS) kelapa sawit merupakan satu tahap penting dalam proses pascapanen. Kondisi pengangkutan menentukan kuantitas dan kualitas TBS sebagai bahan baku pabrik kelapa sawit. Mengingat masih banyak jalan perkebunan yang belum ideal, penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari hubungan tingkat kerusakan jalan dan penempatan TBS di bak truk terhadap kinerja pengangkutan. Indikator kinerja pengangkutan yang digunakan adalah buah restan (tertinggal di kebun), kadar asam lemak bebas (ALB), tingkat pelepasan buah (membrondol), dan tingkat memar (indeks memar). Penelitian dibagi menjadi dua tahap, yaitu: 1) kinerja pengangkutan dari piringan pohon ke tempat pengumpulan hasil (TPH). 2) kinerja pengangkutan dari TPH ke pabrik. Perlakuan dalam penelitian tahap dua adalah kualitas jalan pengumpulan, yaitu jalan baik, sedang, dan buruk, dan posisi TBS di bak truk, yaitu di lapisan dasar, tengah, dan atas. Hubungan panjang jalan rusak dengan tingkat restan buah dianalisis dengan analisis regresi, sedang indikator kinerja pengangkutan dianalisis dengan analisis varians (Anova), dan kemudian dilanjutkan dengan analisis satu arah pembedaan antar perlakuan dengan metode Tukey. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kondisi atau tingkat kerusakan jalan memberikan pengaruh terhadap indikator kinerja pengangkutan tingkat buah restan, namun tidak secara nyata berpengaruh terhadap tingkat pelepasan buah sawit dari tandan (pembrondolan), tingkat kerusakan buah (indeks memar) dan kadar ALB pada saat pengangkutan menggunakan truk bak kayu. Sedang posisi TBS di dalam bak truk berpengaruh cukup nyata terhadap tingkat pelepasan buah dari tandan, dan berpengaruh nyata terhadap indeks memar buah selama pengangkutan.


Keywords


Palm oil transportation; leftover fruits; released fruitlets; bruise index; oil Pal FFB

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.12867

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Agritech (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


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