The Connection between Arabic and Western Culture in the Rise of Populism

https://doi.org/10.22146/jh.44770

Fadlil Munawwar Manshur(1*)

(1) Department of Languages and Literatures, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This article discusses the rise of populism in Arabic and Western cultures as well as the connection between them. This study shows that populism in the Arab and Western world have several common characteristics: resistance against the mainstream, xenophobia, isolation, intolerance, hostility towards strangers, extremism, radicalism, anti-multiculturalism, and anti-globalization. The rise of populism has affected Arabic and Western cultures, as well as their interactions. Because of populism, Western culture’s views of the outside world, strangers, immigrants, and Islam has changed significantly. Western culture, influenced by populism, tend to be intolerant, isolated, xenophobic, and lack trust in multiculturalism. Meanwhile, populism in Arabic culture tends to be more anti-Western, anti-capitalist, and anti-liberalist. With the rise of populism, relations between these two cultural entities have become colored by tension, distrust, suspicion, and xenophobia.




Keywords


populism; Arabic culture; Western culture; xenophobia; anti-immigrant; anti-multiculturalism; anti-globalization

Full Text:

PDF


References

Acemoglu, Daron, Georgy Egorov, and Konstantin Sonin (2011). ’A Political Theory of Populism,’ NBER Working Papers 17306, National Bureau of Economic Research.

Arief, Sritua, and Adi Sasono (1984). Indonesia: Ketergantungan dan Keterbelakangan. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan.

Berezin, Mabel (2013). The Normalization of the Right in Post-Security Europe. Armin Schaefer and Wolfgang Streeck (eds.), Politics in an Age of Austerity. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Berlin, Isaiah et. al. (1968). To Defne Populism. Government and Opposition, 3(2), 137–180.

Betz, Hans-Georg (1994). Radical Right-Wing Populism in Western Europe. London: The Macmillan Press.

Bove, Jose (ed.) (2004). The Movement of Movements: A Reader. London-New York: Verso.

Brubaker, Rogers (2001). The Return of Assimilation? Changing Perspectives on Immigration and Its Sequels in France, Germany, and the United States. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 24, 531–548.

Canovan, Margaret (2002). Taking Politics to the People: Populism as the Ideology of Democracy. Meny, Yves and Yves Surel (eds.), Democracies and the Populist Challenge. New York: Palgrave, pp. 25–44.

Carter, Elisabeth (2005). The Extreme Right in Western Europe: Success or Failure? Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Colas, A. (2004). The Re-Invention of Populism: Islamist Responses to Capitalist Development in the Contemporary Maghreb. Historical Materialism, 12, 231–260.

Eatwell, Roger (2000). The Rebirth of the ‘Extreme Right’ in Western Europe? Parliamentary Affairs, 53, 407-425.

Fakih, Mansour (2003). Bebas dari Neoliberalisme. Yogyakarta: Insist Pers.

Fekete, Liz (2012). The Muslim Conspiracy Theory and the Oslo Massacre. Race Class, 53(3), 30–47.

Friedman, Thomas L. (2000). Lexus and the Olive Tree. USA: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Gherghina, Sergiu, and Sergiu Mişcoiu (2013). Contemporary Populism: A Controversial Concept and Its Diverse Forms. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Gidron, Noam, and Bart Bonikowski (2014). Varieties of Populism: Literature Review and Research Agenda. Cambridge: Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University.

Goodliffe, Gabriel (2012). The Resurgence of the Radical Right in France. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gracia, Jorge J.E. (2002). Globalization, Philosophy, and Latin America. M. Sáenz (ed.), Latin American Perspectives on Globalization: Ethics, Politics, and Alternative Visions. Lenham: Rowman & Littlefeld Publishers.

Guiora, Amos N. (2014). Tolerating Intolerance: The Price of Protecting Extremism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hadiz, Vedi R. (2013). A New Islamic Populism and the Contradictions of Development. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00472336.2013.832790

Hadiz, Vedi R. (2011). The New Islamic Populism. Global Dialogue, 2(2).

Haider, J. (1993). Die Freiheit, Die ich Meine. FrankfurtBerlin: Ullstein. 

Hawkins, Kirk A. (2009). ‘Is Chavez Populist?: Measuring Populist Discourse in Comparative Perspective’, Comparative Political Studies, 42.

Hawkins, Kirk A. (2010). Venezuela’s Chavismo and Populism in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Henry, M.,and S. Taylor (1997). Globalisation and National Schooling Policy in Australia. B. Lingard and P. Porter(eds.), A National Approach to Schooling in Australia: Essays on the Development of National Policies in School Education. Canberra: AustralianCollege of Education.

Hollingworth, Clare (2015). The Arabs and the West. New York: Routledge.

Houellebecq, Michel (2003). Platform. New York: Knopf.

Hunter, Shireen (1998). The Future of Islam and the West: Clash of Civilizations or Peaceful Coexistence? Washington DC: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Huntington, Samuel P. (1993). The Clash of Civilizations? Foreign Affairs.

Huntington, Samuel P. (1996). The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Ignazi, Piero (2003). Extreme Right Parties in Western Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Inglehart, Ronald F., and Pippa Norris (2016). Trump, Brexit, and the Rise of Populism: Economic Have-Nots and Cultural Backlash. Harvard: Harvard Kennedy School.

Ionescu, Ghita, and Ernst Gellner, (eds.) (1969). Populism: Its Meanings and National Characteristics. New York: Macmillan.

Ivarsflaten, Elisabeth (2008). What Unites Right-Wing Populists in Western Europe? Re-Examining Grievance Mobilization Models in Seven Successful Cases. Comparative Political Studies, 41, 3–23.

Kaltwasser, Cristobal Rovira (2012). The Ambivalence of Populism: Threat and Corrective for Democracy. Democratization, 9(2), 184–208.

Kaltwasser, Cristobal Rovira (2013). The Responses of Populism to Dahl’s Democratic Dilemmas. Political Studies.

Kehrberg, Jason E. (2007). Public Opinion on Immigration in Western Europe: Economics, Tolerance, and Exposure. Comparative European Politics, 5, 264–261.

Khan, Aijaz Ahmad (2014). The Offensive Depictions of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) in Western Media and its Consequences. Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization, 4(1).

Levitt, Theodore (1983). Globalization of Markets. Harvard Business Review.

Lewis, Bernard (1982). The Muslim Discovery of Europe. New York: Oxford University Press.

Madrid, R. L. (2008). The Rise of Ethnopopulism in Latin America. World Politics, 60(3), 475–508.

Martins, Nathalia De Almeida Barros (2012). Anti-Immigrant Rhetoric in Western Europe: The Role of Integration Policies in Extreme Right Populism. Thesis at the Department of Political Science in the College of Sciences at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida

McLuhan, Marshall, andBruce R. Powers (1992). The Global Village: Transformations in World Life and Media in the 21st Century: Communication and Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

Mertes, Tom (ed.) (2004). A Movement of Movements: Is Another World Really Possible? London-New York: Verso

Mudde, Cas, and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser (eds.) (2012). Populism in Europe and the Americas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Mudde, Cas (2004). The Populist Zeitgeist. Government and Opposition, 39(4), 542–563.

Mudde, Cas (2007). Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Panizza, Francisco (2005). Populism and the Mirror of Democracy. London: Verso.

Postel, Charles (2007). The Populist Vision. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Roy, O. (2004). Globalised Islam: The Search for A New Ummah. London: Hurst.

Rubin, Jennifer, et al. (2014). Intolerance in Western Europe: Analysis of Trends and Associated Factors. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.

Scholte, Jan Aart (2000). Globalization:A Critical Introduction. London: Palgrave. 

Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo M. & Desirée Baolian Qin-Hilliard (2004). Globalization: Culture and Education in the New Millennium. California: Regents of the University of California.

Taras, Ray (2008). Transnational Xenophobia in Europe? Literary Representations of Contemporary Fears. Language and the Scientific Imagination, 11th International Conference of ISSEI, Language Center, University of Helsinki, Finland, 28 July – 2 August 2008.

White, J. (2002). Islamist Mobilization in Turkey: A Study in Vernacular Politics. Seattle: University of Washington Press. (https://www.alaraby.co.uk/english/comment/2017/8/23/tyranny-grants-populism-new-life-in-egypt).

News transcript from NBC, 9/4/2010.

News transcript from CBN, 4/12/2011.

News transcript from Fox News, 12/13/2015.

News transcript from CNN, 3/9/2016.

News transcript from Fox News Sunday, 3/13/2016.

News transcript from Bloomberg TV, 3/23/2016.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jh.44770

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 468 | views : 503

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Humaniora

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2302-9269 (Online)


web counter View My Stats