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Vol. 34 (2), 2022

1. Transliteration of Indonesian Geographical Names into Chinese
Qin Weifen1*, Wang Difei1
1College of Chinese Language and Culture, Jinan University, China

In this paper, a comparative analysis of the phonetics between Indonesian and Chinese in the geographical name conversion process is carried out to investigate the way of Chinese transliterating for Indonesian geographical names, in order to standardize Chinese proper translation for Indonesian geographical names. The author found that in general, people will translate geographical names by transliterating for specific parts of the name, and paraphrasing for generic names. Processing of vowels and consonants has different characteristics in the transliteration process, which generally according to Chinese pronunciation habits. And some geographical names are translated directly into Chinese dialects. This contains a wealth of immigrant cultural information and dialect information, which can infer the general distribution of early Chinese immigrants in Indonesian settlements, guide significance for the study of Chinese society and culture. In addition, Chinese transliterated names for Indonesian geographical names in different historical periods are subject to change.

2. Criticizing Female Genital Mutilation Practice from Feminist Standpoint Theory: A View from Communication Science Perspective
Hendar Putranto
Doctoral Program of Communication Sciences, Universitas Indonesia
This conceptual review examines Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) practice in Indonesia viewed from Feminist Standpoint Theory (FST). The current study uses a literature review to build an argumentative contribution from communication science perspective. FGM is a global phenomenon locally and culturally practiced in more than 29 countries, including Indonesia. Despite many state regulations and international treaties forbidding the practice because of its harmful consequences, FGM practice is persistently maintained by religion, culture, tradition, and other factors. The author proposes FST as a theoretical base to criticize FGM because it does not represent the lived experience of women, marginalizes women further to the brink of ideal democratic participation, and does not contribute towards the positive construction of female selfhood. The author will elaborate on these three objections using the communication science perspective within the Indonesian cultural context. The author proposes more action-oriented theorizing to overcome FST's practical deficiency by providing insights from critical intercultural communication. Women's collective agency based on situated knowledge will empower their communicative skills as enablers of transformation to eradicate FGM.

3. Theorizing Beauty Regimes: Indonesian Women Performing their Gender Ideology and Resistance through Makeup
Suzie Handajani
Department of Anthropology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
This article is about how Indonesian women talk about their beauty practices. They realize how their beauty routines are often seen as banal and shallow but simultaneously essential to their gendered beings. However, this article argues that women are able to subvert the deprecating narratives of their beauty regimes into empowering ones while maintaining the same practice. Through their practices, they seem to conform to the beauty requirement in society. However, through their discourse, they present their beauty regimes with perspectives that put their free will and agency at the centre of their beauty regimes. The research is done by asking 22 Indonesian women with ages ranging from mid-twenties to mid-sixties, about their beauty routines. Their answers are analyzed by using feminist discourse analysis to seek possibilities of subversion and empowerment. Another theoretical approach used in this research is the politics of everyday lives. The problematization of everyday practices allows for the deconstruction of ideology that perpetuates gendered norms of beauty. This research is significant because it provides a blueprint for research on gender politics in the 21st century that focuses a lot on everyday practices as demonstrated by social media.

4. Anti-feminist Movement, Hegemonic Patriarchy, and Gender Equality Challenges: The Case of the Sexual Violence Elimination Bill
Laila Kholid Alfirdaus; Lupyta Agra Divina; Fitriyah Fitriyah
Department of Politics and Government Science, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Challenges to gender equality in Indonesia sometime not only related to men and male patriarchy. Using the case of Sexual Violence Elimination Bill, women, supported by party affiliated with political Islam can also hamper the promotion of women’s rights and equality. Hegemonic patriarchy explains the phenomenon, relating the rejection against the Bill to the patriarchy planted through religious institutions and teaching. The teaching that places women as secondary creature after men, and as the object of men’s authority (Imamah), are taken for granted, believed to be transcendental, turning to be ideological, and concretized through a movement against feminism. All points that try to assert women’s fundamental rights in the Bill are coined as Western values, and being rejected as is seen anti-Islam. Reflecting from the case, it becomes clear that challenges towards gender equality, nowadays get harder, as they not only come from patriarchal men, but also women, who are hegemonized by patriarchal values, and take anti-feminist movement as part of preserving Islam. Tracing through secondary and primary sources, applying desk reviews and interviews, this paper identifies that the rise of anti-feminist movement, rooted along with contemporary Islamization, which has mushroomed in post-Reformasi era, poses new challenges to gender equality promotion.

5. Problematizing the Minimum Age of Marriage in Indonesia: The State and Local Perspective of Marriage Dispensation
Nurul Ilmi Idrus
Department of Anthropology, Hasanuddin University
Child marriage occurs throughout the world, in developed countries and especially in developing countries, including Indonesia. This article examines how categorisation of age is problematised particularly in relation to marriage dispensation after the amendments of marriage law in 2019. Using a qualitative approach, this study was conducted in Maros Baru District, Maros Regency, South Sulawesi. Thirty-seven participants were interviewed and a total of 30 participants were involved in three focus group discussions. Findings demonstrate that there is a gap between legal categorisation of age and its local interpretation in the context of marriage practices. While the amendment of marriage law in 2019 aims to increase the minimum age of marriage, marriage dispensation still occurs. Marriage dispensation is usually given under the consideration of supported evidence in relation to the benefits (maslahat) as well as the harms (mudharat). However, when a request of marriage dispensation is rejected, marriage still occurs. As such, it is common for unregistered marriage (nikah siri) to be a “way out”.

6. Online Learning during Pandemic in Indonesia: A Case Study on Digital Divide and Sociality among Students
Sita Hidayah
Department of Anthropology, Universitas Gadjah Mada
This paper discusses the social world of online education in Indonesia. Drawing on a qualitative study between July-September 2021, this paper describes how students used digital technologies for education and for social connections purposes during the covid-19 restriction policy. In contrast to the assumed uniformity of online education and ubiquity of information technologies, this study identifies various digital divides ranging from unequal access to and control over digital devices and internet, to the varying degrees of students’ technological skills and participations. To understand students’ social interactions and networks, sociality is used as a conceptual framework. Data was collected using online interviews and partial participant observations with high school and university students from Jakarta, Bali, Magelang, Pekanbaru, and Yogyakarta. The study concludes that digital divide in online education exacerbates existing social inequalities. Online education, on the other hand, enables the construction of new forms of stratification and relationships.

7. From One Project to Another: Unintended Consequences and People’s Expectation on Climate Mitigation Project in Central Kalimantan
Manggala Ismanto
Department of Anthropology, Universitas Brawijaya
This paper discusses the dynamics of environmental interventions supported by aid projects and community responses as the subject of intervention. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in Central Kalimantan, I looked at how connections between local and global entities occurred, between the local villagers and climate mitigation project of REDD +. Both of these entities met as the global discourse on climate change started to gain ground. This paper discusses how environmental interventions lead to different expectations and unintended consequences. I see the responses as choices and decisions which was historically constructed. These choices, expectations, and decisions are related to people's experience with previous intervention agents and local livelihood dynamics. This local-global interaction with various narrations can raise the unintended outcomes and different expectations in a REDD+'s demonstration activities project. When these two entities -local people and KFCP (Kalimantan Forest Climate Partnership) – meet in the global agenda to mitigate climate change, emerging friction occurs due to competing interests. My findings demonstrate how reforestation program led to socio-economic inequality from. The potential for land conflicts is likely to occur due to the effect of the presence of alternative livelihood programs which introduced rubber seeds.

8. Media Framing of Disasters and their Implications for Tourism Industry Policy: Case of Surabaya terrorist attack 2018 and Mt. Agung eruption 2017, Indonesia
Erda Rindrasih 
Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada
Tourist destinations worldwide are periodically jeopardised by natural disaster events that threaten tourists' safety which seriously impacted tourism industry. Mass media has a role to communicate and warn the public about disaster. Media portrayal on disaster events is likely to contribute to the tourism industry recovery and resilience. However, media has been attributed to having a negative message to tourists, making them hesitate to visit the destination. Limited research has focused on how media frames disaster events and how policy-makers could intervene. Based on analysis of media coverage of the Surabaya terrorist attack in 2018 and Mt. Agung eruption in 2017, this paper looked at the consequences to tourism industry policy. A content analysis of the mass media from national and international newspapers of Australia, Malaysia, and Singapore was conducted. The study identifies five different framings on the two disasters, including source of problems, impact, solution, responsibility, and adaptive versus maladaptive. Findings also highlights the limited policy response towards potentially negative role of media portrayal. Based on these findings, partnership between media and government stakeholder should be fostered to encourage post-disaster recovery.