Arif Darmawan(1*), Sumiati Sumiati(2), Widya Hermana(3)

(1) Department of Nutrition and Feed Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor
(2) Department of Nutrition and Feed Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor
(3) Department of Nutrition and Feed Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor
(*) Corresponding Author


Vitamin E and zinc are necessary for preventing free radical damage to phospholipid membranes, enzymes and other important molecules. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin E and zinc levels on performance and lipid oxidation in fresh and stored eggs of laying duck. A total of 90 of 22 weeks old ducks were randomly divided into 15 experimental units by assigning a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 replications. The treatment diets were R1 (control diet), R2 (R1+40 IU vitamin E), R3 (R1+80 IU vitamin E), R4 (R1+100 ppm organic zinc), and R5 (R1+200 ppm organic zinc).The experiment was carried out for 8 wk. Parameters observed were feed intake, egg production, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) value. The results showed that increasing of vitamin E from 40 IU to 80 IU and zinc from 100 ppm to 200 ppm did not affect feed intake and egg weight. Otherwise, the dietary Vitamin E and organic zinc significantly decreased (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio and significantly increased (P<0.05) egg production and decreased (P<0.01) TBARS values. It is concluded that dietary 40 IU vitamin E or 100 ppm organic zinc could increase the performance of laying ducks and dietary 200 ppm organic zinc was more efective to be antioxidant than 40 and 80 IU vitamin E. 



Antioxidant; Organic zinc; Performance; Vitamin E

Full Text:



Akdemir, F. and K. Sahin. 2009. Genistein supplementation to the quail: effects on egg production and egg yolk genistein, daidzein, and lipid peroxidation levels. Poult. Sci. 88: 2125-2131.

Ashok, A. and A. Sushil. 2005. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in male infertility: difficult balance. Iranian J. Reprod. Med. 3: 1-8.

Bachri, I., Roeswandy and A. Nasution. 2006. Pemanfaatan solid dekanter dan suplementasi mineral Zinkum dalam ran­sum terhadap produksi burung puyuh (Cortunix- cortunix japonica) umur 6-17 minggu dan daya tetas. J. Agrib. Pet. 2: 72-77.

Bahakaim, A. S. A., H. A. A. Magied, S. M. H. Osman, A. S. Omar, N. Y. A. Malak and N. A. Ramadan. 2014. Effect of using different levels and sources of zinc in layer's diets on egg zinc enrichment. Egypt. Poult. Sci. 34: 39-56

Bales, C. W., R. A. DiSilvestro, K. L.Currie, C. S. Plaisted, H. Joung, A. N. Galanos and P. H. Lin. 1994. Marginal zinc deficiency in older adults: responsiveness of zinc status indicators. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 13: 455-462.

Bhowmik, D., Chiranjib and K. P. Kumar. 2010. A Potential medicala importance of zinc in human health and chronic disease. Int. J. Pharm. Biomed. Sci. 1: 5-11.

Biswas, A., J. Mohan and K. V. H. Sastry. 2010. Effect of vitamin e on production performance and egg quality traits in indian native Kadaknath He. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 23: 396-400.

Bozkurt, M., A. Alçiçek, M. Çabuk, K. Kuçukyilmaz and A. U. Çatli. 2009. Effect of an herbal essential oil mixture on growth, laying traits, and egg hatching characteristics of broiler breeders. Poult. Sci. 88: 2368-2374.

Camps, J.,T. Bargallo, A. Gimenez, S. Alie and J. Caballeria, A. Pares, J. Jovan, L. Masana, J. Rodes. 1992. Relationship between hepatic lipid peroxidation and fibrogenesis in carbon tetrachloridetreated rats: effect of zinc administration. Clin. Sci. 83: 695-700.

Canan, S. B., M. K. Erhan, M. S. Keles and R. Kocyigit. 2007. Effect of dietary vitamin e on performance, plasma and egg yolk vitamin e levels and lipid oxidation of egg in heat stressed layers. J. Appl. Biol. Sci. 1: 19-23.

Chen, W. L. and T. F. Shen. 1989. Comparative studies on the ulitilization of calcium between laying Tsaiya Duck and Leghorn Hen. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 2: 67-75.

Cherian, G., F. W. Wolfe and J. S. Sim. 1996. Feeding dietary oils with alpha tocopherols: Effects on internal qualities of eggs during storage. J. Food Sci. 61: 15-18.

Cherian, G., R. K. Selvaraj, M. P. Goeger and P. A. Stitt. 2002. Muscle fatty acid composition and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances of broilers fed different cultivars of sorghum. Poult. Sci. 81: 1415-1420.

Darmawan, A., K. G. Wiryawan and Sumiati. 2013. Egg production and quality of Magelang duck fed diets containing different ratio of omega 3 : omega 6 and organic zn. Med. Pet. 36: 197-202. DOI: 10.5398/medpet.2013.36.3.197.

Dauqan, E., A. Abdullah and  H. A. Sani. 2013. Lipid peroxidation in rat liver using different vegetable oils. The Malay. J. Analytical. Sci.17: 300-309.

El-Deek, A. A. and A. M. Brikaa. 2009. Effect of different levels of seaweed in starter and finisher diets in pellet and mash form on performance and carcass quality of ducks. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 8: 1014-1021.

Ferket, P. R and A. G. Gernat. 2006. Factors that affect feed intake of meat birds. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 5: 905-911.

Hardini, D., T. Yuwanta, Zuprizal and Supadmo. 2006. The change in cholesterol content of long chain fatty acid egg during processing and its influence to the Rattus norvegicus L. blood cholesterol content. Jurnal Ilmu Ternak Veteriner 11: 260-265.

Holik, V. 2009. Management of laying hens to minimize heat stress. Lohmann Information. 44:16-29.

Ketaren, P. P. dan L. H. Prasetyo. 2002. Pengaruh pemberian pakan terbatas terhadap produksi telur itik silang Mojosari x Alabio (MA): 1. Masa bertelur fase pertama umur 20-43 minggu. Jurnal Ilmu Ternak Veteriner 7: 38-45.

Kirunda, D. F. K., S. E. Scheideler and S. R. McKee. 2001. The efficacy of vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) supplementation in hen diets to alleviate egg quality deterioration associated with high temperature exposure. Poult. Sci. 80: 1378-1383.

Laika, M. and R. Jahanian. 2015. Dietary supplementation of organic selenium could improve performance, antibody response, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed on diets containing oxidized fat. R. Biol.Trace. Elem. 165: 195.

Leeson, S. and J. D. Summers. 2005. Commercial Poultry Nutrition. 3 rd Ed. Department of Animal and Poultry Sci­ence, University of Guelph. University Books, Guleph.

Orlova, M. A. and A. P. Orlov. 2011. Role of zinc in an organism and its influence on processes leading to apoptosis. British. J. Medic. Research. 1: 239-305.

Powell, S. R. 2000. The antioxidant properties of zinc. J. Nutr. 1452-1456.

Radwan, N. L., R. A. Hassan, E. M. Qota and H. M. Fayek. 2008.  Effect of natural antioxidant on oxidative stability of eggs and productive and reproductive performance of laying hens. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 7: 134-150.

Raederstorff, D., A. Wyss, P. C. Calder, P. Weber and M. Eggersdorfer. 2015. Vitamin E function and requirements in relation to PUFA. Br. J. Nutr. 114: 1113-1122.

Rahimi, S., S. K. Azad and M. A. K.Torshizi. 2011. Omega-3 enrichment of broiler meat by using two oil seeds. J. Agr. Sci. Tech. 13: 353-365.

Rice-Evans, C. and T. D. Anthony. 1991. Techniques in free radical research. Elsevier, pp: 146-202.

Rink, L. and H. Kirchner. 2000. Zinc-altered immune function and cytokine production. J. Nutr. 130: 1407-1411.

Sahin, N., K. Sahin, M. Onderci, M. Karatepe, M. O. Smith and O. Kucuk. 2006. Effects of dietary lycopene and vitamin E on egg production, antioxidant status and cholesterol levels in japanese quail. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19: 224-230.

Salgueiro, M. J., M. Zubillaga, A. Lysionek, M. I. Sarabia, R. Caro, T. De Paoli, A. Hager, R. Weill, and J. Boccio. 2000. Zinc as essential micronutrient: a review. Nutr. Res. 20: 737-755.

Sasongko, H. 2010. Feeding management evaluation of duck farmer group in Brebes. Proceedings of the 5th International Seminar on Tropical Animal Production, Universitas Gadjah Mada. 364-367.

Shahryar, H. A., R. Salamatdoust, S. Chekani-Azar, F. Ahadi and T. Vahdatpoor. 2010. Lipid oxidation in fresh and stored eggs enriched with dietary ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E and A dosages. Afric. J. Biotech. 9: 1827-1832.

Simopoulos, A. P. 2002. Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. J. Amer. Coll. Nutr. 21: 495-505.

Sumiati, W. Hermana, A. Darmawan, and N. Nuraeni. 2015. The effect of feeding Zinc (Zn) and vitamin E fortified diets on duck egg quality stored at different temperature during 21 days. Proceeding 4th ISAINI “Recent Advance in Animal and Feed Technology to Support Sustainable Livestock Production System”. Manado. Pp. 30-39.

Suripta, H. dan P. Astuti. 2006. Pengaruh penggunaan minyak lemuru dan minyak sawit dalam ransum terhadap rasio asam lemak omega-3 dan omega-6 dalam telur burung puyuh (Coturnix coturnix japonica). J. Indon. Trop. Anim. Agric. 32: 22-27.

Vilarino, M., M. L. Picard, J. P. Melcion and J. M. Faure. 1996. Behavioural adaptation of laying hens to dilution of diets under mash and pellet form. Br. Poult. Sci. 37: 895-907.

Wilson, E. K., F. W. Pierson, P. Y. Hester, R. L. Adams and W. J. Stadelman. 1980. The of high environmental temperature on feed passage time and performance of Pekin ducks. J. Poult. Sci. 2322-2325.

Young, I. S. and J. V. Woodside. 2001. Antioxidants in health and disease. J. Clin. Pathol. 54: 176-186.

Zubaidah. 2001. Kualitas telur itik hasil persilangan Alabio dengan bibit induk CV 2000 pada generasi pertama dengan kandang litter. J. Peternakan Lingkungan 7: 13-18.



Article Metrics

Abstract views : 886 | views : 679


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Buletin Peternakan (Bulletin of Animal Science) Indexed by:

 Harvard Library
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.