Re-Interpretation of Mañjuśrī in Central and East Java

https://doi.org/10.22146/jh.66294

Lesley S Pullen(1*)

(1) SOAS University of London
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This article will begin with a brief look at the origins of Mañjuśrī from south Nepal, his popularity in China and the many depictions of him in eastern India and Java. More importantly, it will re-interpret a selected group of the Boddhisattva Mañjuśri in the human form with one head and two arms. The statues produced in both bronze, silver and stone, all with similar attributes identifying him as Mañjuśrī. The theoretical framework follows the various representation of Mañjuśrī statues from eastern India to a Kumārabhūta form only in Central Java and a single form of Arapacana in East Java.  Within this framework, it will evaluate the stylistic features, attributes and the sartorial style of statues from both regions of Java, with details not previously discussed by past scholars, particularly looking at the textile patterns found on several of the statues.

When the Mañjuśrī statues appeared in Central Java, various forms of the youthful Kumārabhūta or royal prince emerged, where he appeared to be particularly popular. Despite past knowledge of these statues, this paper allows for a new research direction and highlights the change in Mañjuśrī styles from Central to East Java. Similarly, various forms of Mañjuśrī Arapacana from eastern India transpire in East Java with this one unique statue of Arapacana from Caṇḍi Jago.


Keywords


art history; dress; iconography; Java; Mañjuśrī; sculpture; textile patterns

Full Text:

PDF


References

Acri, A. (2016). Introduction: Esoteric Buddhist Networks along the Maritime Silk Routes, 7th -13th Century AD. In A. Acri (Ed.), Esoteric Buddhism in Medieval Maritime Asia (pp. 1-29). Singapore: ISEAS.

Bautze-Picron, C. (2007). Sculpture. a. Ancient Period. In S. Lala Rukh (Ed.), Fine Arts and Crafts (pp. 91-109): Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.

Bautze-Picron, C. (2016). Shiva and Umâ, Manjushrî, Narasimha seated astride Garuda. In A World of Sculptures, ed. KARIM & ISABELLE GRUSENMEYER-BILQUIN, DAMIEN WOLINER (pp. 4-7, 14-22). Bruxelles: Grusenmeyer/Woliner.

Bautze-Picron, C. (1989). Some Aspects of Mañjushrî's Iconography in Bihar from the 7th century onwards. Tribus, Jahrbuch des Linden-Museums, 38, 71-90.

Bernet Kempers, A. J. (1959). Ancient Indonesian Art. Amsterdam: C. P. J. van der Peet, .

Bhattacharyya, B. (1924). The Indian Buddhist Iconography: Mainly based on the Sadhanamala and other Cognate Tantric Texts of Rituals. New Delhi: Aryan Books International.

Bhattacharyya, B. (1958). Indian Buddhist Iconography (2nd ed.). Calcutta: Mukhopadhyay, K.L.

Bosch, F. D. K. (1921). De Inscriptie op het Manjusri beeld van 1265 Saka. BKI, 77, 194-201.

Bosch, F. D. K. (1961). Selected Studies in Indonesian Archaeology. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff

Brandes, J. L. A. (1904). Beschrijving van de ruïne bij de desa Toempang, genaamd Tjandi Djago : in de residentie Pasoeroean. 's-Gravenhage : Batavia: M. Nijhoff

Brandes, J. L. A. (1909). Beschrijving van Tjandi Singasari [microform] : en de wolkentooneelen van Panataran Batavia: M. Nijhoff ; Albrecht & co., .

Degroot, V. (Ed.) (2013). Magical Prambanan. Yogjakarta: PT (Persero) Taman Wisata Candi.

Deshpande, O. (2016). Works of Art From Southeast Asia. St Petersburg: The State Hermitage Publishers.

Dumarçay, J. (1981). Candi Sewu and Buddhist Architecture of Central Java (J. Miksic, Trans.). Jakarta: Ecole francaise d'Extreme-Orient.

Fontein, J. (1990). Sculpture of Indonesia. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.

Friedrich, R. (1864). Über 2 Inschriften auf einem Bilde des Mandjuçrî, jetzt im Neuen Museum zu Berlin. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 18, 494-508.

Gail, A. (1995). Manjusri and his Sword. Paper presented at the Function and Meaning in Buddhist Art, Leiden University.

Huntington, S., L, & Huntington, J., C. (1990). Leaves From the Bodhi Tree:The Art of Pala India (8th -12th Centuries) and Its International Legacy. Seattle and London: Dayton Art Institute.

Jordaan, R. E. (1993). Imagine Buddha in Prambanan: Reconsidering the Buddhist Background of the Loro Jonggrang Temple Complex. Rijksuniversiteit te Leiden: Vakgroep Talen en Culturen van Zuidoost-Azie en Oceanie.

Kieschnick, J. (2015). Building a Sacred Mountain: The Buddhist Architecture of China's Mount Wutai. [Building a Sacred Mountain: The Buddhist Architecture of China's Mount Wutai, Wei-Cheng Lin]. The Journal of Asian Studies, 74(1), 199-200.

Kozok, U., & Reijn, v. (2010). Adityawarman: Three Inscriptions of the Sumatran 'King of all Kings'. Indonesia and the Malay World, 38(110), 135-158.

Long, M. E. (2015 Nov). An Eighth-century Commentary on the Namasangiti and the Cluster of Temples on the Prambanan Plain in Central Java. . NSC Working Paper, No 20, 1-24.

Lunsingh Scheurleer, P. (1988). A Particular Central Javanese Group of Bronzes. Paper presented at the Studies in South and Southeast Asian Archaeology, Leiden.

Lunsingh Scheurleer, P. (2008). The Well-Known Javanese Statue in the  Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam, and its place in Javanese Sculpture. Artibus Asiae, 68(2), 287-332. doi:10.2307/40599602

Lunsingh Scheurleer, P., & Klokke, M. J. (1988). Divine Bronze: Ancient Indonesian bronzes from A.D. 600 to 1600. Leiden: Brill.

Mahler, J. G. (1958). The Art of Medieval Burma in Pagan. Archives of the Chinese Art Society of America, 12, 30-47.

Mallmann, M.-T. d. (1964). Étude iconographique sur Mañjuśrī. Paris: École française d'Extrême-Orient.

Maxwell, T. S. (1997). The Gods of Asia: Image Text and Meaning. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Miksic, J. (2006). Manjusri as a Political Symbol in Ancient Java. In B. Dagens & H. Chambert-Loir (Eds.), Anamorphoses : Hommage à Jacques Dumarçay (pp. 185-226). Paris: Les Antes Savantes.

Mitra, D. (1978). Bronzes from Achutrajpur, Orissa. Delhi: Agan Kala Prakashan.

Pullen, L. S. (2017). Representation of Textiles on Classical Javanese Sculpture. PhD Thesis, SOAS, London (4436, plus Vol 2 Appendices)

Pullen, L. S. (2021). Patterned Splendour: Textiles Presented on Javanese Metal and Stone Sculptures Eight to the Fifteenth Century. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing.

Raffles, S. S. (1817). The History of Java (Vol. II). London: Black, Parbury and Allen.

Reichle, N. (2007). Violence and Serenity, late Buddhist Sculpture from Indonesia. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.

Robson, S., & Prapanca, M. (1995). Desawarnana (Nagarakrtagama) (S. Robson, Trans.). Leiden: KITLV.

Schnitger, F. M. (1937). The Archaeology of Hindoo Sumatra. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Sen, T. (2009). Changes and Exchanges. India International Centre Quarterly, 36(3/4), 34-47.

Snellgrove, D. L. (1987). Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists and their Tibetan successors. London: Serindia.

Soekmono, R. (1995). The Javanese Candi, Function and Meaning. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Southworth, W., A. (2017). Twelve Stone Sculptures from Java. The Rijksmuseum Bulletin, 65(3), 245-274.

Stutterheim, W. F. (1932). Eine Statue des Javanischen Königs Krtanagara in Berlin? Berliner Museen, 53(3), 47-50.

Untracht, O. (1997). Traditional Jewellery of India. London: Thames and Hudson.

Wahyono, M. (1999). The Gold of the Archipelago. In D. Hall (Ed.), Indonesian Gold, Treasures from the National Museum, Jakarta. South Brisbane: Queensland Art gallery.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jh.66294

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 570 | views : 494

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2021 Humaniora

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.



ISSN 2302-9269 (online); ISSN 0852-0801 (print)
Copyright © 2021 Humaniora, Faculty of Cultural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada