South-East Asian Fortified Stone Walls: Angkor Thom (Cambodia), Ho Citadel (Vietnam) and Ratu Boko (Indonesia)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jh.v28i3.22275

Víctor Lluís Pérez Garcia(1*)

(1) Universitat Rovira i Virgili
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This article aims to analyze three significant examples of defensive walls from South-East Asia made of solid stone blocks (both rock as well as stone-like laterite) and provided with different but equivalent functions –a fortified imperial capital-city (Angkor Thom, in Cambodia), a fortified royal citadel (Ho Citadel, in the North of Vietnam) and a royal palace with a partly fortified appearance (Ratu Boko, in Java Island, Indonesia)–, focusing on their constructive and technical characteristics and establishing parallels between them and their closest counterparts, from China and India. We will see how their design and structure can be closely related to the fortifications of neighbouring empires, as places of origin of their strong cultural influences and, at the same time, we will try to identify the local particularities. We will pay special attention to the form of the fortified enceintes, considering the long tradition of the quadrangular plan in the walls of royal capitals, inspired in the ideal model of Chinese and Indian cities. Our research also make us think that the walls of Ratu Boko, despite their functions as symbolic limits or for retaining the soil, could also have had a defensive purpose, no matter if secondary, or at least they could be used to provide protection to the complex in case of external menace.


Keywords


archaeology, Asia, Cambodia, fortification, Indonesia, military architecture, Vietnam

Full Text:

PDF


References

AA.VV. (1992). Arqueología de las ciudades perdidas, vol. 28, Extremo Oriente, Salvat, Barcelona.

AA.VV. (2015). Kraton Ratu Boko. A Javanese site of enigmatic beauty, Wisata Candi Borodudur, Prambanan & Ratu Boko, Jakarta.

Albanese, Marilia (2006). Los tesoros de Angkor, Guías de Arte y Viajes, Libsa, Madrid.

Aymonier, Étienne (1904). Le Cambodge 3. Le groupe d’Angkor et l’histoire, Ernest Leroux, Paris.

Chapman, William (2013). A heritage of ruins. The ancient sites of Southeast Asia and their conservation, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.

Coe, Michael D. (2003). Angkor and the Khmer civilization, Thames & Hudson, London.

Coedès, George (1968): The indianized states of Southeast Asia, University of Hawai Press, Honolulu.

Bernet Kempers, August John (1959). Ancient Indonesian art, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Bernet Kempers, August John (1978). Herstel in Eigen Waarde. Monumentenzorg in Indonesië, Walberg, Amsterdam.

Bezacier, Louis (1952). “Conception du plan des anciennes citadelles capitales du Nord Vietnam”,J ournalA siatique1 40,p p.1 85-195.

Bezacier, Louis (1955). L’Art vietnamien, Éditions de l’Union Française, Paris.

Bezacier, Louis (1972). Manuel d’archéologie d’Extrême-Orient. Tome 2. Le Viêt-Nam, Picard, Paris.

Briggs, Lawrence Palmer (1954). The ancient Khmer empire, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 41, Philadelphia.

Bullough, Nigel (1995). Historic East Java. Remains in stone, The East Java Tourism Promotion Foundation, Singapore.

Casparis, J.G. de (1956). Prasasti Indonesia II. Selected inscriptions from the 7th to the 9th century A.D., Masa Barn, Bandung.

Chihara, Daigoro (1996). Hindu-Buddhist Architecture in Southeast Asia, Studies in Asian Art and Archaeology 19, Brill, Leiden.

Christie, Jan Wisseman (1991). “States without cities: Demographic trends in Early Java”, Indonesia 52, pp. 23-40.

Christie, Jan Wisseman (2001). “Revisiting early Mataram”, Fruits of inspiration. Studies in honour of Prof. J.G. de Casparis, Egbert Forsten, Groningen, pp. 25-55.

Coningham, Robin & Manuel, Mark & Davis, Christopher (2015). “Archaeology and cosmopolitanism in Early Historic and Medieval Sri Lanka”, Sri Lanka at the crossroads. From antiquity to modernity, Cambdridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1-29.

Degroot, Véronique (2006). “The archaeological remains of Ratu Boko: from Sri Lankan Buddhism to Hinduism”, Indonesia and the Malay World, 34, 98, pp. 55-74.

Degroot, Véronique (2010). Candi, space and landscape. A Study on the distribution, orientation and spatial organization of central Javanese temple remains, Sidestone Press, Leiden.

Degroot, Verónique et alii (2013). Magical Prambanan, Taman Wisata Candi Borodudur, Prambanan & Ratu Boko, Jakarta.

Deloche, Jean (2007). Studies on fortification in India, Collection Indologie 104, École Française d’Extrême-Orient, Paris

DiBiasio, Jame (2013). The story of Angkor, Silkworm Books, Chiang Mai.

Do, Quang Trong & Nguyen, Xuan Toan & Le, Thi Lien & Le, Thi Thu Trang (2011): Ho Citadel. The world heritage, Vol. 1. The outstanding universal values, Social Sciences Publishing House, Hanoi.

Dumarçay, Jacques (1986). The temples of Java, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Dumarçay, Jacques (1993). L’histoire de l’architecture de Java, École Française d’Etrême-Orient, Paris.

Dumarçay, Jacques (1998). The site of Angkor, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Dumarçay, Jacques & Smithies, Michael (1995). Cultural sites of Burma, Thailand and Cambodia, Oxford University Press, Oxford- Singapore-New York.

Dumarçay, Jacques & Royère, Pascal (2001). Cambodian architecture. Eighth to Thirteenth centuries, Brill, Leiden.

Fass, Virginia (1986). The forts of India, Collins, London.

Fontein, Jan & Soekmono, R. & Suleiman, Satyawati (1971). Ancient

Indonesian art of the Central and East Javanese periods, Asia Society, New York.

Freeman, Michael (1998). A guide to Khmer temples in Thailand and Laos, Weatherhill, Boston (Massachusetts).

Gaucher, Jacques (2004). “Angkor Thom, une utopie réalisée? Structuration de l’espace et modèle indien d’urbanisme dans le Cambodge ancien”, Arts Asiatiques 59, pp. 58-86.

Giteau, Madeleine (1996). Histoire d’Angkor, Editions Kailash, Paris.

Glaize, Maurice (1993). Les monuments du groupe d’Angkor, Maisonneuve, Paris.

Groeneveldt, W. P. (1876). Notes on the Malay Archipelago and Malacca, compiled trom Chineses ources,B runing,B atavia( Jakarta).

Hall, K.R. (1985). Maritime trade and state development in early South East Asia, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.

Hambali, Halina (1993). Keraton Ratu Boko in Yogyakarta, Directorate General for Culture – Department of Education and Culture, Jakarta.

Higham, Charles (2003). Civilization of Angkor, Phoenix, London.

Hla, U Kan (1978). “Traditional Town Planning in Burma”, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, vol 37, nº 2 (May), pp. 92-104.

Huard, Pierre & Durand, Maurice (1954). Connaissance du Viet-Nam (Viet-Nam. Civilisation and Culture), École française d’Extrême-Orient, Hanoi.

Ibbitson Jessup, Helen (2004). Art & Architecture of Cambodia, Thames & Hudson, London.

Inajati – AA.VV. (2005). “Kota Gede: An archaeological perspective of a capital city in Java in the 17th century”, Humaniora 17, nº 2 Juni, pp. 125- 134.

Jacq-Hergoualc’h, Michel (2007). The armies of Angkor. Military structure and weaponry of the Khmers, Orchid Press, Bangkok.

Jacques, Claude & Freeman, Michael (2008a). Ancient Angkor, Books Guides, River Books, Bangkok.

Jacques, Claude & Freeman, Michael (2008b). Angkor. Cities and temples, River Books, Bangkok.

Kim, N.C. & Van Toi, L. & Hiep, T.H. (2010). “Co Loa. An investigation of Vietnam’s ancient capital”, Antiquity 84 (326), pp. 1011-1027.

Krom, N.J. (1923). Inleiding tot de Hindoe-Javaansche Kunst (Introduction to Hindu-Javanese Art), 3 vols, Nijhoff, The Hague.

Kinney, Ann R. (2003). Worshiping Siva & Buddha. The temple art of east Java, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.

Lal, Braj Basi (1949). “Sisupalgarh 1948: An early historical fort in Eastern India”, Ancient India 5, pp. 62-105.

Le, Thanh Khoi (1981). Histoire du Viet Nam des origines à 1858, Sudestasie, Paris.

Lombard, Denys (1968). “Jardins à Java”, Arts Asiatiques 9, pp. 135-184.

Lunet de Lajonquière, Étienne Edmond (1902-1911). Inventaire descriptif des monuments du Cambodge, 3 vols., École Française d’Extrême- Orient, Paris.

Marr, David G. & Milner, Anthony Crothers et alii (1986). Southeast Asia in the 9th to 14th Centuries, Institute of Souteast Asian Studies – Research School of Pacific Studies, Singapore – Canberrra.

Mazzeo, D. & Antonini, C.S. (1978). Monuments of civilization. Ancient Cambodia, Grosset & Dunlap, New York.

Miksic, J. (1993-1994). “Double Meditation Platforms at Anurâdhapura and the pendopo of Ratu Boko”, Saraswati. Esai-esai Arkeologi 10, Kalpataru 2, pp. 23-31.

Millet, Didier & Miksic, John (2003). Ancient History. Indonesian Heritage Series, vol. 1, Archipelago Press, Singapore.

Mishra, Ratanlal (2002). Military architecture in ancient India, B.R. Publishing Corportation, Delhi.

Mitra, Debala (1957). “Jaugada”, Indian archaeology. A review (1956-7), pp. 30–31.

Motô, Hinago (1986). Japanese Castles, Kodansha International, Tokyo-Nova York-San Francisco.

Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula,E ditionsD idierM illet,S ingapore.

Naerssen, F. H. van (1963). “Some Aspects of the Hindu-Javanese Kraton”, The Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia, pp. 14-18.

Needham, Joseph et alii (1994). Science and Civilisation in China, vol. 5, part 6, Military Technology: Missiles and Sieges, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Nguyen, Thi Thuy (2009). Thanh Tay Do va vung dat Vinh Loc (Thanh Hoa) tu cuoi the ky XIV Den

giua the ky XIX (Tay Do citadel and the land of Vinh Loc –Thanh Hoa– from the end of the XIV to the middle of the XIX centuries), Ph.Doctor thesis, National Library, Hanoi.

Nossov, Konstantin S. (2006). Indian castles 1206- 1526, Osprey Publishing, Oxford.

Park, Seon-Yong et alii (2007). A basic research on mountain fortress in central inland area of Korea, The Korea Fortress Academy, Chungcheongbuk-do Province, Cheongju.

Parmentier, Henri (1909-1918). Inventaire descriptif des monuments cams de l’Annam, 2 vols, École Française d’Extrême-Orient, Paris.

Patra, Benudhar (2007): “Jaugada. An early historical fort town of Orissa”, Orissa Review, January 2007, pp. 44-47.

Pérez Garcia,Víctor Lluís (2010). Anàlisi comparativa dels feudalismes japonès i europeu: aspectes militars i fortificacions (Comparative analysis of Japanese and European Feudalism: Military aspects and fortifications), Vision Libros, Madrid.

Phuong, Tran Ky (2012). Vestiges of Champa civilization, The Gioi Publishers, Hanoi.

Schinz, Alfred (1996). The magic square. Cities in ancient China, Edition Axel Menges, Stuttgart- London.

Schweyer, Anne-Valérie (2005). Le Vietnam ancien, Les Belles Lettres, Paris.

Schweyer, Anne-Valérie (2011). Ancient Vietnam. History, art and archaeology, River Books, Bangkok.

Shatzman, Nancy (1999). Chinese imperial city planning, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.

Sit, Victor (2010). Chinese city and urbanism. Evolution and development, New Jersey.

Soekmono, R. (1979). “The archaeology of Central Java before 800 AD”, Early South East Asia. Essays in archaeology, history and historical geography (Smith & Watson eds.), Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 457-472.

Soekmono, R. (1988). Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia (Introduction to the cultural history of Indonesia), vol. 2, Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta.

Soekmono, R. (1995). The Javanese candi. Function and meaning, Studies in asian art and archaeology 17, Brill, Leiden.

Soetarno, R. (2002). Aneka candi kuno di Indonesia (Ancient Temples in Indonesia), Dahara Prize, Semarang.

Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman (1999). Chinese imperial city planning,

University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.

Suleiman, Satyawati (1981). Monuments of Ancient Indonesia, Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional, Jakarta.

Sundberg, Jeffrey Roger (2003). “A Buddhist mantra recovered from the Ratu Baka plateau: a preliminary study of its implications for Sailendra-era Java”, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 159, n. 1, pp. 163-188.

Sundberg, Jeffrey Roger (2004). “The wilderness monks of the Abhayagirivihara and the origins of Sino-Javanese esoteric Buddhism”, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 160, n. 1, pp. 95-123.

Tjahjono, Gunawan & Miksic, John (2003). Architecture Indonesian Heritage Series, vol. 6, Archipelago Press, Singapore.

Toy, Sidney (1957). The strongholds of India, London.

Turnbull, Stephen (2003). Japanese Castles 1540-1640, Osprey Publishing, Oxford.

Turnbull, Stephen (2007). The Great Wall of China 221BC-AD 1644, Osprey Publishing, Oxford.

Turnbull, Stephen (2008). Japanese Castles AD 250- 1540, Osprey Publishing, Oxford

Turnbull, Stephen (2009). Chinese walled cities 221 BC-AD 1644, Osprey Publishing, Oxford.

Ung, Mai & Hung, Dao (1993). Hue. Monuments of an ancient capital, The Gioi Publishers, Hanoi.

Van der Meulen, W.J. (1979). “King Sanjaya and his successors”, Indonesia 28, pp. 17-54.

Vann Molyvann, S. E. (1999). Les cités khmer anciennes, Toyota Foundation, Phnom Penh.

Wijesurya, G.S. (1998). Buddhist Meditation Monasteries of Ancient Sri Lanka, Department of Archaeology, Colombo.

Yin, Yang et alii (2005). The eternal Great Wall, China National Art Photograph Publishing House, Beijing.

Yule, Paul & Böhler, Wolfgang (2004). “Sisupalgarh: An early historic fortress in coastal Orissa and its cousins”, Beiträge zur allgemeinen und vergleichenden Archäologie 24, pp. 15-29.

Yule, Paul (2006). Early historic sites in Orissa, Pragun Publications, Delhi.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jh.v28i3.22275

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 715 | views : 744

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Humaniora

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 ISSN: 2302-9269 (Online)


web counter View My Stats