Post-Depletion Aggression Restrained: Replicability of Brief Mindfulness Induction In Indonesian Sample

Cleoputri Yusainy, Wahyu Wicaksono
(Submitted 4 June 2018)
(Published 10 April 2019)


Mindfulness practice is being promoted in Western countries as a means to improve one’s ability to restrain aggression under the “depleted” condition. The applicability of this framework in non-Western settings is yet to be determined. This study (N = 119 Indonesian undergraduates) directly replicated Yusainy and Lawrence (2015) experiment with native British sample, to examine the moderation of mindfulness induction on post-depletion aggression (i.e., blast intensity in an adapted competitive reaction-time task). Similar results were obtained, in that mindfulness induction moderated the ego-depletion and (i) blast intensity link under low/moderate provocation, and (ii) self-control performance link after the aggression task. Notably, the benefit of mindfulness was also indicated in our additional aggression measure of the late deliverance of maximum blast in depleted females. While Western operationalization of mindfulness operates quite similar across cultures, the inclusion of a subtle measure of aggression appears to be crucial for Indonesian females.


aggressive behaviour; ego-depletion; mindfulness induction; self-control; cross-cultural replication

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.22146/jpsi.36103


Allen, J. J., Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2018). The general aggression model. Current Opinion in Psychology, 19, 75-89. doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.03.034

Anderson, C. A., Buckley, K. E., & Carnagey, N. L. (2008). Creating your own hostile environment: A laboratory examination of trait aggressiveness and the violence escalation and the violence escalation cycle. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(4), 462-473. doi: 10.1177/0146167207311282.

Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 27–51. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135231

Archer, J. (2004). Sex differences in aggression in real-world settings: A meta-analytic review. Review of General Psychology, 8(4), 291-322. doi: 10.1037/1089-2680.8.4.291

Baron, B. A., & Richardson, D. R. (1994). Perspectives in social psychology:Human aggression (2nd ed.). New York: Plenum Press.

Bartholow, B. D. (2018). The aggressive brain: Insights from neuroscience. Current Opinion in Psychology, 19, 60–64. doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.04.002

Baumeister, R. F., Bratslavsky, E., Muraven, M., & Tice, D. M. (1998). Ego depletion: Is the active self a limited resource? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1252–1265. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.74.5.1252

Baumeister, R. F., Heatherton, T. F., & Tice, D. M. (1994). Losing control: How and why people fail at self-regulation. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D., & Tice, D. M. (2007). The strength model of self-control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(6), 351-355. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00534.x

Bergeron, N.,& Schneider, B. H. (2005). Explaining cross-national differences in peer-directed aggression:A quantitative synthesis. Aggressive Behavior, 31(2), 116–137. doi: 10.1002/ab.20049

Bergmüller, S. (2013). The relationship between cultural individualism–collectivism and student aggression across 62 countries. Aggressive Behavior, 39(3), 182-200. doi: 10.1111/10.1002/ab.21472

Berkowitz, L. (1993). Aggression: Its causes, consequences, and control. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Bettencourt, B. A., & Miller, N. (1996). Gender differences in aggression as a function of provocation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 119(3), 422-447. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.119.3.422

Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., ... Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 230–241. doi: 10.1093/clipsy/bph077

Björkqvist, K., Lagerspetz, K. M., & Kaukianen, A. (1992). Do girls manipulate and boys fight? Developmental trends in regard to direct and indirect aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 18(2), 117-127. doi: 10.1002/1098-2337(1992)18:2<117::AID-AB2480180205>3.0.CO;2-3

Bushman, B. J. (2002). Does venting anger feed or extinguish the flame? Catharsis, rumination, distraction, anger, and aggressive responding. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(6), 724–731. doi: 10.1177/0146167202289002

Caspi, A. (2000). The child is father of the man: Personality continuities from childhood to adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(1), 158–172. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.78.1.158

Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1996). Social information-processing mechanisms in reactive and proactive aggression. Child Development, 67, 993 – 1002

Denson, T. F. (2013). The multiple systems model of angry rumination. Personality and SocialPsychology Review, 17(2), 103-123. doi:10.1177/1088868312467086

Denson, T. F., DeWall, C. N., & Finkel, E. J. (2012). Self-control and aggression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(1), 20–25. doi: 10.1177/0963721411429451

Dickerson, S. S., & Kemeny, M. E. (2004). Acute stressors and cortisol responses: a theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin, 130(3), 355-391. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.130.3.355

Elson, M.(2016). Competitive reaction time task. doi: 10.17605/ OSF.IO/4G7FV

Elson, M., Mohseni, M. R., Breuer, J., Scharkow, M. & Quandt, T. (2014). Press CRTT to measure aggressive behavior: The unstandardized use of the competitive reaction time task in aggression research. Psychological Assessment, 26, 419–432, doi: 10.1037/a0035569

Finkel, E. J., DeWall, C. N., Slotter, E. B., Oaten, M., & Foshee, V. A. (2009). Self-regulatory failure and intimate partner violence perpetration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(3), 483–499. doi: 10.1037/a0015433

French, D. C., Jansen, E. A., & Pidada, S. (2002). United States and Indonesian children’s and adolescents’ reports of relational aggression by disliked peers. Child Development, 73(4), 1143–1150. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00463

Friese, M., Messner, C., & Schaffner, Y. (2012). Mindfulness meditation counteracts self-control depletion. Consciousness and Cognition, 21(2), 1016–1022. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2012.01.00

Gailliot, M. T., & Baumeister, R. F. (2007). The physiology of willpower: Linking blood glucose to self-control. Perso­nality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 303–327. doi: 10.1177/1088868307303030

Geen, R. G. (2001). Human aggression (2nd ed.). Buckingham, England: Open University Press.

Giancola, P. R., & Parrott, D.J. (2008). Further evidence for the validity of the Taylor aggression paradigm. Aggressive Behavior, 34(2), 214-229. doi: 10.1002/ab.20235

Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Hagger, M. S., Chatzisarantis, N.L.D., Alberts, H., Anggono, C.O., Batailler, C., Birt, A., Brand, R., Brandt, … Zweinenberg, M. (2016). A multi-lab pre-registered replication of the ego-depletion effect. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11(4), 546-573. doi: 10.1177/1745691616652873

Hagger, M. S., Wood, C., Chris, S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (2010). Ego-depletion and the strength model of self-control: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin. 136(4), 495-525. doi: 10.1037/a0019486

Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.

Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Howells, K., Tennant, A., Day, A., & Elmer, R. (2010). Mindfulness in forensic mental health: Does it have a role? Mindfulness, 1(1), 4-9. doi: 10.1007/s12671-009-0001-x

Inzlicht, M., & Gutsell, J. (2007). Running on empty: Neural signals for self-control failure. Psychological Science, 18(11), 933–937. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.02004.x

Ireland, J. L., & Batool, S. (2018). Treatment for aggression: Promoting individual change. In J. L. Ireland, P.Birch, & C. A. Ireland (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook of human aggression: Current issues and perspectives(pp. XX-XX). New York: Routledge.

Koentjoroningrat. (1985). Javanese culture. Singapore: Oxford University Press East Asia.

Lau, M. A., Bishop, S. R., Segal, Z. V., Buis, T., Anderson, N. D., Carlson, L., Shapiro, S., Carmody, J., Abbey, S., & Devins, G. (2006). The Toronto Mindfulness Scale: Development and validation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(12), 1445-1467. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20326

Lawrence, C., & Hutchinson, L. (2014). The impact of non-aggressive behavior early in aggressive interactions: Sex differences in direct and indirect aggression in response to provocation. British Journal of Psychology, 105, 127-144. doi: 10.1111/bjop.12020

Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224-253. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.98.2.224

McCarthy, R. J., & Elson, M. (2018). A conceptual review of lab-based aggression paradigms. Collabra: Psychology, 4(1), 4, 1-12. doi: 10.1525/collabra.104

McEllistrem, J. E. (2004). Affective and predatory violence: A bimodal classification system of human aggression and violence. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10(1), 1-30. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2003.06.002

Moffitt, T., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R., Harrington, H. L., … Caspi, A. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(7), 2693–2698. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1010076108

Ramirez, J. M. (2007). Justification of aggression in several Asian and European countries with different religious and cultural background.International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31(51), 9-15. Retrieved from

Seeley, E. A., & Gardner, W. L. (2003). The “selfless” and self-regulation: The role of chronic other orientation in averting self-regulatory depletion. Self and Identity, 2(2), 103–117. doi: 10.1080/ 15298860309034

Shonin, E., Gordon W. V., Slade, K., & Griffiths M. D. (2013). Mindfulness and other Buddhist-derived interventions in correctional settings: A systematic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18(3), 365–372. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2013.01.002.

Staller, M. S., Christiansen, P., Zaiser, B., Körner, S., & Cole, J. C. (2017). Do they aggress earlier? Investigating the effects of ego depletion on police officers’ use of force behavior. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 1, 1-13. doi: 10.1007/s11896-017-9249-6

Stucke, T. S., & Baumeister, R. F. (2006). Ego depletion and aggressive behavior: Is the inhibition of aggression a limited resource? European Journal of Social Psychology, 36(1), 1–13. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.285

Taylor, S. (1967). Aggressive behavior and physiological arousal as a function of provocation and the tendency to inhibit aggression. Journal of Personality, 35(2), 297-310. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1967.tb01430.x

Teper, R., Segal, Z., & Inzlicht, M. (2013). Inside the mindful mind: How mindfulness enhances emotion regulation through improvements in executive control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22(6), 449–454. doi: 10.1177/0963721413495869

Trimulyaningsih, N. (2017). Konsep kepribadian matang dalam budaya Jawa-Islam: Menjawab tantangan globalisasi. Buletin Psikologi, 25(2), 89-98. doi: 10.22146/buletinpsikologi.28728

Vadillo, M. A., Gold, N., & Osman, M. (2016). The bitter truth about sugar and willpower: The limited evidential value of the glucose model of ego depletion. Psychological Science, 27(9), 1207 – 1214. doi: 10.1177/ 0956797616654911

Van Dam, N. T., van Vugt, M. K., Vago, D. R., Schmalzl, L., Saron, C. D., Olendzki, A., . . . Meyer, D. E. (2018). Mind the hype: A critical evaluation and prescriptive agenda for research on mindfulness and meditation. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(1) 36–61. doi: 10.1177/ 1745691617709589

Wallace, A. B., & Bodhi, B. (2006). The nature of mindfulness and its role in Buddhist meditation: A corres­pondence between B. Alan Wallace and the Venerable Bhikkhu Bodhi. Unpublished manuscript. Santa Barbara, California: Santa Barbara Institute for Consciousness Studies.

Watson, D., Clark, L. A, Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063-1070. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.106

Williams, J. M. G., & Penman, D. (2011). Mindfulness: An eight-week plan for finding peace in a frantic world (Track 1). Oxford: Piatkus.

Wrangman, R. W. (2017). Two types of aggression in human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (early edition). 115(2), 245-253 doi: 10.1073/pnas.1713611115

Yusainy, C. (2017). Feeling full or empty inside? Peran perbedaan individual dalam struktur pengalaman afektif. Jurnal Psikologi, 44(1), 1-17. doi: 10.22146/jpsi.18377

Yusainy, C. (2015). Quo vadis Psikologi sebagai sebuah kajian ilmiah? Buletin Psikologi Fakultas, 23(1), 51-56. doi: 10.22146/bpsi.10577

Yusainy, C., & Lawrence, C. (2015). Brief mindfulness induction could reduce aggression after depletion. Consciousness and Cognition, 33(1), 125–134. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2014.12.008

Yusainy, C., & Lawrence, C. (2014). Relating mindfulness and aggression to harm to the self and to others. Personality and Individual Differences, 64(1), 78–83. doi: 10.1016/ j.paid.2014.02.015


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Psikologi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.