Feeling Full or Empty Inside? Peran Perbedaan Individual dalam Struktur Pengalaman Afektif


Cleoputri Al Yusainy(1*),

(1) Jurusan Psikologi FISIP Universitas Brawijaya
(*) Corresponding Author


Trait alexithymia dan rumination umumnya diteliti secara terpisah, namun dampak buruknya terhadap pengalaman afektif secara potensial dapat dihambat oleh trait self-control. Penelitian ini bertujuan memetakan struktur pengalaman afektif berdasarkan perbedaan individual dalam trait alexithymia, rumination, dan self-control. Pengalaman afektif partisipan (N = 85) dibangkitkan melalui teknik induksi visual International Affective Picture System (IAPS: Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2008) yang mencakup 60 foto dari kombinasi dua dimensi afektif, yaitu valence (positif vs. netral vs. negatif) dan arousal (tinggi vs. rendah). Rating valence dan arousal diberikan dalam bentuk label non-verbal Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM: Lang, 2008). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan (1) terdapat interkorelasi antara trait alexithymia, rumination, dan self-control, (2) dimensi-dimensi pada trait alexythimia dan rumination memiliki asosiasi dengan hipersensitivitas terhadap stimulus afektif, dan (3) afek negatif dibutuhkan sebagai sinyal untuk mengaktivasi trait self-control. Temuan ini menggarisbawahi bahwa peran ketiga trait tersebut dalam struktur pengalaman afektif tidak muncul secara global namun bersifat kontekstual dari perspektif kombinasi valence dan arousal.


arousal; trait alexithymia; trait rumination; trait self-control; valence

Full Text:



Badan Penelitian & Pengembangan Kesehatan (2013). Riset Kesehatan Dasar. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia.

Bagby, R. M., Parker, J. D. A. & Taylor, G. J. (1994). The twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale-I. Item selection and cross-validation of the factor structure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38, 23-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999(94)90005-1

Baumeister, R. F., & Alghamdi, N. G. (2015). Role of self-control failure in immoral and unethical actions. Current Opinion in Psychology, 6, 66–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.04.001

Baumeister, R. F., Gailliot, M., DeWall, C. N., & Oaten, M. (2006). Self-regulation and personality: How interventions increase regulatory success, and how depletion moderates the effects of traits on behavior. Journal of Personality, 74(6), 1773–1801. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2006.00428.x

Bernat, E., Patrick, C. J., Benning, S. D., & Tellegen, A. (2006). Effects of picture content and intensity on affective physiological response. Psychophysiology, 43(1), 93–103. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2006.00380.x

Bradley, M. M. (2009). Natural selective attention: Orienting and emotion. Psychophysiology, 46, 1–11. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2008.00702.x

Bradley, M. M. & Lang, P. J. (2007). The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) in the study of emotion and attention. In J. A. Coan and J. J. B. Allen (Eds.), Handbook of Emotion Elicitation and Assessment (pp. 29-46). Oxford University Press.

Bradley, M. M. & Lang, P. J. (1999). Affective norms for English words (ANEW): Simuli, instruction manual and affective ratings. The Center for Research in Psychophysiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. 

Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1982). Control theory: A useful conceptual framework for personality-social, clinical and health psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 92(1), 111–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.92.1.111

Colibazzi, T., Posner, J., Wang, Z., Gorman, D., Gerber, A., Yu, S., & Russell, J. A. (2010). Neural systems subserving valence and arousal during the experience of induced emotion. Emotion, 10, 377–389. http://doi.org/10.1177/0003065113484061

Damasio, A. R. (1999). The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace.

De Ridder, D. T., Lensvelt-Mulders, G., Finkenauer, C., Stok, F. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (2012). A meta-analysis of how trait self-control relates to a wide range of behaviors. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 16(1), 76-99. http://doi.org/10.1177/1088868311418749

Denson, T. F. (2013). The multiple systems model of angry rumination. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 17(2), 103-123. http://dx.doi.org 10.1177/1088868312467086

Denson, T. F., DeWall, C. N., & Finkel, E. J. (2012). Self-control and aggression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(1), 20–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0963721411429451

Department of Health. (2011). No Health without Mental Health: A cross-Government mental health outcomes strategy for people of all ages - a call to action. London: Department of Health.

Feldman Barrett, L., & Russell, J. A. (1999). The structure of current affect: Controversies and emerging consensus. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 10–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.00003

Feldman, G. C., Joormann, J., Johnson, S. L. (2008). Responses to positive affect: A self-report measure of rumination and dampening. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 507-525. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-006-9083-0

Freund, S. (2012). An examination of the cognitive, affective, and physiological aspects of alexithymia. Electronic Theses and Dissertations, Paper 4805. Canada: University of Windsor.

Friese, M., & Hofmann, W. (2009). Control me or I will control you: Impulses, trait self-control, and the guidance of behavior. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(5), 795-805. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2009.07.004

Fritz J., & Dreisbach, G. (2013). Conflicts as aversive signals: Conflict priming increases negative judgments for neutral stimuli. Cognitive Affective Behavioral Neuroscience, 13, 311–317. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-012-0147-1

Gross, J. J. (Ed.). (2007). Handbook of Emotion Regulation. New York: Guilford.

Heinzel, A., Schafer, R., Muller, H., Schieffer, A., Ingenhag, A., Northoff, G., Franz, M., & Hubertus, H. (2010). Differential modulation of valence and arousal in high-alexithymic and low-alexithymic individuals. NeuroReport, 21, 998–1002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0b013e32833f38e0

Henry, J. D., Phillips, L. H., Crawford, J. R., Theodorou, G., & Summers, F. (2006). Cognitive and psychosocial correlates of alexithymia following traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychologia, 44, 62-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.04.011

Hidayat, R. (2011). Regret and topical accounting: Is cyclical bidding the bases of the laboratory winner’s curse? Jurnal Psikologi, 38(2), 185-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.22146/jpsi.7652

Inzlicht, M., Bartholow, B. D., & Hirsh, J. B. (2015). Emotional foundations of cognitive control. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 19(3), 126–132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2015.01.004

Inzlicht, M., & Legault, L. (2014). No pain, no gain: How distress underlies effective self-control (and unites diverse social psychological phenomena). In J. Forgas & E. Harmon-Jones (Eds.), The Control Within: Motivation and its Regulation (pp. 115-132). New York: Psychology Press.

Izard, C. E. (2010). The many meanings/aspects of emotion: Definitions, functions, activation, and regulation. Emotion Review, 2, 363–370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1754073910374661

Karlsson, H., Naatanen, P., Stenman. H. (2008). Cortical activation in alexithymia as a response to emotional stimuli. British Journal of Psychiatry, 192, 32–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.106.034728

Lang, P. J. (1980). Behavioral treatment and bio-behavioral assessment: Computer applications. In J. B. Sidowski, J. H. Johnson, & T. A. Williams (Eds.), Technology in mental health care delivery systems (pp. 119–137). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (2008). International affective picture system (IAPS): Affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual. Technical Report A-8. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Loas, G., Corcos, M., Stephan, P., Pellet, J., Bizouard, P., Venisse, J. L., Perez-Diaz, F., Guelfi, J.D., Flament, M., & Jeammet, P. (2001). Factorial structure of the 20-item toronto alexithymia scale confirmatory factorial analyses in nonclinical and clinical samples. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 50(5), 255-261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2014.12.013

Medford, N., & Critchley, H. D. (2010). Conjoint activity of anterior insular and anterior cingulate cortex: Awareness and response. Brain Structure and Function, 214(5-6), 535–549. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-010-0265-x

Moffitt, T., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R., Harrington, H. L., … Caspi, A. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(7), 2693–2698. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1010076108

Moriguchi, Y., Touroutoglou, A., Dautoff, R., Dickerson, B.C., Barrett, L. F. (2014). Sex differences in the neural correlates of affective experience. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9(5), 591–600. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nst030

Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 569–582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0021-843X.100.4.569

Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Larson, J., & Grayson, C. (1999). Explaining the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(5), 1061–1072. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.5.1061

Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(5), 400-424. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x

Panksepp, J., & Biven, L. (2012). The archaeology of mind: Neuroevolutionary origins of human emotions. New York: W. W. Norton and Co.

Panayiotou, G. (2008). Emotional dimensions reflected in ratings of affective scripts. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1795–1806. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.02.006

Ray, R. D., Ochsner, K. N., Cooper, J. C.. Robertson, E. R., Gabrieli, J. D. E., & Gross, J. J. (2005). Individual differences in trait rumination and the neural systems supporting cognitive reappraisal. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 5(2), 156-168. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/CABN.5.2.156

Russell, J. A. (2003). Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion. Psychological Review, 110, 145–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0033-295X.110.1.145

Swart, M., Kortekaas, R., & Aleman, A. (2009). Dealing with feelings: Characterization of trait alexithymia on emotion regulation strategies and cognitive-emotional processing. PLoS ONE, 4(6), e5751. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005751/

Tangney, J. P., Baumeister, R. F., & Boone, A. L. (2004). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality, 72(2), 271–322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00263.x

Taylor, G. J., Bagby, R. M., & Parker, J. D. A. (2003). The 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale IV. Reliability and factorial validity in different languages and cultures. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 55(3), 277−283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3999(02)00601-3

Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Rumination reconsidered: A psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 247–259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023910315561

Whitmer, A, & Gotlib, I. H. (2011). Brooding and reflection reconsidered: A factor analytic examination of rumination in currently depressed, formerly depressed, and never depressed individuals. Journal Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35(2), 99-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10608-011-9361-3

Williams, J. M. (2010). Mindfulness and psychological process. Emotion, 10(1), 1-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018360

Yusainy, C., & Lawrence, C. (2015). Brief mindfulness induction could reduce aggression after depletion. Consciousness and Cognition, 33(1), 125–134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2014.12.008

Yusainy, C., Thohari, S., & Gustomy, R. (2016). #StopAbleism: Reduksi stigma kepada penyandang disabilitas melalui intervensi bias implisit. Jurnal Psikologi, 43, 1-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.22146/jpsi.9168. 

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpsi.18377

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1129 | views : 974


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Jurnal Psikologi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Psikologi Terindeks di :

View My Stats
©Copyright pada Jurnal Psikologi UGM supported by OJS

Creative Commons License

@The Jurnal Psikologi site and its metadata are licensed under CC BY-SA