Synthesis and Application of Zinc Layered Hydroxide: A Short Review

Norhayati Hahsim(1*), Zuhailimuna Muda(2), Illyas Md Isa(3), Norlaili Abu Bakar(4), Wan Rusmawati Wan Mahamod(5), Noorshida Mohd Ali(6), Sharifah Norain Mohd Sharif(7), Maizatul Najwa Jajuli(8), Syazwan Afif Mohd Zobir(9), Suyanta Suyanta(10)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia; Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
(2) Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Dato' Dol Said, 78000 Alor Gajah, Melaka, Malaysia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia; Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
(4) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
(5) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
(6) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia; Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
(7) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia; Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
(8) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia; Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
(9) Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
(10) Department of Chemistry Education, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Jl. Colombo No. 1, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Zinc Layered hydroxide (ZLH) is a layered material easily synthesized with a structure identical to brucite-like material. Due to the exchangeable anions in the interlayer compensating for the positive charge of a brucite-type layer, ZLH provides a wide application in many fields. This review focuses on the properties and method of synthesis of ZLH by giving an overview of intercalated guest anion in the interlayer of ZLH. The further discussion involved the application of intercalated guest anion in zinc layered hydroxide layer and its properties as a sensitizer, controlled release biomedical, and agriculture to provide the scientific community for research and development by giving current findings. This brief review also presents the success of anion intercalation for controlled release along with the kinetic model involved, which increases the bioavailability and effectiveness of the nanocomposite on its target. It shows the development of research on ZLH nanocomposites toward the sustainability of human life and the environment. This study implies that it is a source of knowledge for researchers about zinc-layered hydroxide materials involving synthesis methods and their application to produce more beneficial nanomaterials.


zinc layered hydroxide; synthesis; intercalation; nanocomposite

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Shinagawa, T., Chigane, M., and Izaki, M., 2021, Electrochemical growth of Mg(OH)x layered films stacked parallel to the substrates and their thermal conversion to (111)-oriented nanoporous MgO films, ACS Omega, 6 (3), 2312−2317.

[2] Ruiz, C.V., Rodríguez-Castellón, E., and Giraldo, O., 2019, Hybrid materials based on a layered zinc hydroxide solid and gallic acid: Structural characterization and evaluation of the controlled release behavior as a function of the gallic acid content, Appl. Clay Sci., 181, 105228.

[3] Mohsin, S.M.N., Hussein, M.Z., Sarijo, S.H., Fakurazi, S., Arulselvan, P., and Yun Hin, T.T., 2013, Synthesis of (cinnamate-zinc layered hydroxide) intercalation compound for sunscreen application, Chem. Cent. J., 7, 26–38.

[4] Arizaga, G.G.C., Gardolinski, J.E.F.C., Schreiner, W.H., and Wypych, F., 2009, Intercalation of an oxalatooxoniobate complex into layered double hydroxide and layered zinc hydroxide nitrate, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 330 (2), 352–358.

[5] Nabipour, H., and Sadr, M.H., 2015, Controlled release of diclofenac, an anti-inflammatory drug by nanocompositing with layered zinc hydroxide, J. Porous Mater., 22 (2), 447–454.

[6] Mohd Zobir, S.A., Ali, A., Adzmi, F., Sulaiman, M.R., and Ahmad, K., 2021, A review on nanopesticides for plant protection synthesized using the supramolecular chemistry of layered hydroxide hosts, Biology, 10 (11), 1077.

[7] Shinagawa, S., Watanabe, M., Mori, T., Tani, J., Chigane, M., and Izaki, M., 2018, Oriented transformation from layered zinc hydroxides to nanoporous ZnO: A comparative study of different anion types, Inorg. Chem., 57 (21), 13137–13149.

[8] Zhang, H., Xu, H., and Lu, S., 2021, Preparation and application of layered double hydroxide nanosheets, RSC Adv., 11 (39), 24254–24281.

[9] Brini, E., Fennell, C.J., Fernandez-Serra, M., Hribar-Lee, B., Lukšič, M., and Dill, K.A., 2017, How water’s properties are encoded in its molecular structure and energies, Chem. Rev., 117 (19), 12385–12414.

[10] da Gama, B.M.V., Selvasembian, R., Giannakoudakis, D.A., Triantafyllidis, K.S., McKay, G., and Meili, L., 2022, Layered double hydroxides as rising-star adsorbents for water purification: A brief discussion, Molecules, 27 (15), 4900.

[11] Theiss, F.L., Couperthwaite, S.J., Ayoko, G.A., and Frost, R.L., 2014, A review of the removal of anions and oxyanions of the halogen elements from aqueous solution by layered double hydroxides, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 417, 356–368.

[12] Machovsky, M., Kuritka, I., Sedlak, J., and Pastorek, M., 2013, Hexagonal ZnO porous plates prepared from microwave synthesized layered zinc hydroxide sulphate via thermal decomposition, Mater. Res. Bull., 48 (10), 4002–4007.

[13] Tang, L., Xie, X., Li, C., Xu, Y., Zhu, W., and Wang, L., 2022, Regulation of structure and anion-exchange performance of layered double hydroxide: Function of the metal cation composition of a brucite-like layer, Materials, 15 (22), 7983.

[14] Hebert, A., and McCalla, E., 2021, The role of metal substitutions in the development of Li batteries, part I: Cathodes, Mater. Adv., 2 (11), 3474–3518.

[15] Sanati, S., and Rezvani, Z., 2018, Co-intercalation of acid red-27/sodium dodecyl sulfate in a Ce-containing Ni-Al-layered double hydroxide matrix and characterization of its luminescent properties, J. Mol. Liq., 249, 318–325.

[16] Yadav, D.K., Uma, S., and Nagarajan, R., 2023, Surfactant intercalation in Li-Al-based binary and ternary layered double hydroxides by the microwave-assisted rapid ion-exchange process and its application in iodine adsorption, Minerals, 13 (3), 303.

[17] Shimamura, A., Jones, M.I., and Metson, J.B., 2013, Anionic surfactant enhanced phosphate desorption from Mg/Al-layered double hydroxides by micelle formation, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 411, 1–7.

[18] da Rocha, M.G., Nakagaki, S., Ucoski, G.M., Wypych, F., and Sippel Machado, G., 2019, Comparison between catalytic activities of two zinc layered hydroxide salts in brilliant green organic dye bleaching, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 541, 425–433.

[19] Zhang, X., Liu, J., and Ren, J., 2022, Structure and release properties of pyrethroid/sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin intercalated into layered double hydroxide and layered hydroxide salt, Front. Chem., 10, 894386.

[20] Liu, J., Zhang, X., and Zhang, Y., 2015, Preparation and release behavior of chlorpyrifos adsolubilized into layered zinc hydroxide nitrate intercalated with dodecylbenzenesulfonate, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 7 (21), 11180–11188.

[21] Quispe-Dominguez, R., Naseem, S., Leuteritz, A., and Kuehnert, I., 2019, Synthesis and characterization of MgAl-DBS LDH/PLA composite by sonication-assisted masterbatch (SAM) melt mixing method, RSC Adv., 9 (2), 658–667.

[22] Demel, J., Hynek, J., Kovář, P., Dai, Y., Taviot-Guého, C., Demel, O., Pospíšil, M., and Lang, K., 2014, Insight into the structure of layered zinc hydroxide salts intercalated with dodecyl sulfate anions, J. Phys. Chem. C, 118 (46), 27131–27141.

[23] Khan, N., and Brettmann, B., 2019, Intermolecular interactions in polyelectrolyte and surfactant complexes in solution, Polymers, 11 (1), 51.

[24] Sachin, K.M., Karpe, S.A., Singh, M., and Bhattarai, A., 2018, An interaction of anionic- and cationic-rich mixed surfactants in aqueous medium through physicochemical properties at three different temperatures, J. Chem., 2018, 4594062.

[25] Sato, R., Machida, S., Sohmiya, M., Sugahara, Y., and Guégan, R., 2021, Intercalation of a cationic cyanine dye assisted by anionic surfactants within Mg−Al layered double hydroxide, ACS Omega, 6, 23837–23845.

[26] He, Y., Wu, Z., Tu, L., Han, Y., Zhang, G., and Li, C., 2015, Encapsulation and characterization of slow-release microbial fertilizer from the composites of bentonite and alginate, Appl. Clay Sci., 109-110, 68–75.

[27] Biswick, T., Park, D.H., and Choy, J.H., 2012, Enhancing the UV A1 screening ability of caffeic acid by encapsulation in layered basic zinc hydroxide matrix, J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 73 (12), 1510–1513.

[28] Muda, Z., Hashim, N., Md Isa, I., Abu Bakar, S., Mohd Ali, N., Hussein, M.Z., Mamat, M., and Sidik, S.M., 2019, Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous zinc layered hydroxide-isoprocarb nanocomposite, J. Saudi Chem. Soc., 23 (4), 486–493.

[29] Yang, G., and Park, S.J., 2019, Conventional and microwave hydrothermal synthesis and application of functional materials: A review, Materials, 12 (7), 1177.

[30] Gan, Y.X., Jayatissa, A.H., Yu, Z., Chen, X., and Li, M., 2020, Hydrothermal synthesis of nanomaterials, J. Nanomater., 2020, 8917013.

[31] Bashi, A.M., Hussein, M.Z., Zainal, Z., and Tichit, D., 2013, Synthesis and controlled release properties of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetate-zinc layered hydroxide nanohybrid, J. Solid State Chem., 203, 19–24.

[32] Hashim, N., Hussein, M.Z., Md Isa, I., Kamari, A., Mohamed, A., Jaafar, A.M., and Taha, H., 2014, Synthesis and controlled release of cloprop herbicides from cloprop-layered double hydroxide and cloprop-zinc-layered hydroxide nanocomposites, Open J. Inorg. Chem., 4 (1), 1–9.

[33] Hashim, N., Muda, Z., Mohd Sharif, S.N., Md Isa, I., Modh Ali, N., Ghazuli, M.R., and Hussein, M.Z., 2017, Preparation of zinc layered hydroxide–chloroacetate nanohybrid using direct reaction method, Mater. Res. Innovations, 21 (6), 396–400.

[34] Mohd Foad, N.S.I., Dzulkifli, N.N., Abdullah, A., Jadam, M.L., and Sheikh Mohd Ghazali, S.A.I., 2021, Synthesis and characterisation of zinc layered hydroxide intercalated with 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid and its controlled release application, ASM Sci. J., 15, 580.

[35] Hussein, M.Z., Al Ali, S.H., Zainal, Z., and Hakim, M.N., 2011, Development of antiproliferative nanohybrid compound with controlled release property using ellagic acid as the active agent, Int. J. Nanomed., 6, 1373–1383.

[36] Al Ali, S.H., Al-Qubaisi, M., Hussein, M.Z., Zainal, Z., and Hakim, M.N., 2011, Preparation of hippurate-zinc layered hydroxide nanohybrid and its synergistic effect with tamoxifen on HepG2 cell lines, Int. J. Nanomed., 6 (1), 3099–3111.

[37] Khudheyer, F.Y., Kzar, K.O., Bashi, A.M., Ali, S., Jawad, E., Faisal, A., and Al-Barry, Z.A., 2016, Ciprofloxacin intercalated with ZnO to produce a nanohybrid used as a delivery machine, Chem. Mater. Res., 8 (3), 61–69.

[38] Barahuie, F., Hussein, M.Z., Gani, S.A., Fakurazi, S., and Zainal, Z., 2014, Anticancer nanodelivery system with controlled release property based on protocatechuate–zinc layered hydroxide nanohybrid, Int. J. Nanomed., 9, 3137–3149.

[39] Adam, N., Sheikh Mohd Ghazali, S.A.I., Dzulkifli, N.N., and Hak, C.R.C., 2021, Characterization, physiochemical, controlled release studies of zinc–aluminium layered double hydroxide and zinc layered hydroxide intercalated with salicylic acid, Bull. Mater. Sci., 44 (2), 155.

[40] Sokol, D., Vieira, D.E.L., Zarkov, A., Ferreira, M.G.S., Beganskiene, A., Rubanik, V.V., Shilin, A.D., Kareiva, A., and Salak, A.N., 2019, Sonication accelerated formation of Mg-Al-phosphate layered double hydroxide via sol-gel prepared mixed metal oxides, Sci. Rep., 9 (1), 10419.

[41] Muda, Z., Hashim, N., Isa, I.M., Ali, N.M., Bakar, S.A., Mama, M., Hussein, M.Z., Bakar, N.A., and Mahamod, W.R.W., 2018, Synthesis and characterization of carbamate insecticide intercalated zinc layered hydroxide modified with sodium dodecyl sulphate, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng., 440, 012003.

[42] Hashim, N., Muda, Z., Md Isa, I., Mohd Ali, N., Abu Bakar, S., and Hussein, M.Z., 2018, The effect of ion exchange and co-precipitation methods on the intercalation of 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid into layered zinc hydroxide nitrate, J. Porous Mater., 25 (1), 249–258.

[43] Mishra, G., Dash, B., and Pandey, S., 2018, Layered double hydroxides: A brief review from fundamentals to application as evolving biomaterials, J. Appl. Clay Sci., 153, 172–186.

[44] Caramazana, P., Dunne, P., Gimeno-Fabra, M., McKechnie, J., and Lester, E., 2018, A review of the environmental impact of nanomaterial synthesis using continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis, Curr. Opin. Green Sustainable Chem., 12, 57–62.

[45] Moezzi, A., Michael, C., and Andrew, M., 2016, Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide, Dalton Trans., 45 (17), 7385–7390.

[46] Gordeeva, A., Hsu, Y.J., Jenei, I.Z., Brant Carvalho, P.H.B., Simak, S.I., Andersson, O., and Häussermann, U., 2020, Layered zinc hydroxide dihydrate, Zn5(OH)10·2H2O, from hydrothermal conversion of ε-Zn(OH)2 at giga pascal pressures and its transformation to nanocrystalline ZnO, ACS Omega, 5 (28), 17617–17627.

[47] Ahmad, R., Hussein, M.Z., Sarijo, S.H., Wan Abdul Kadir, W.R., and Yun Hin, T.Y., 2016, Synthesis and characteristics of valeric acid-zinc layered hydroxide intercalation material for insect pheromone controlled release formulation, J. Mater., 2016, 1285721.

[48] Maruyama, S.A., Tavares, S.R., Leitão, A.A., and Wypych, F., 2016, Intercalation of indigo carmine anions into zinc hydroxide salt: A novel alternative blue pigment, Dyes Pigm., 128, 158–164.

[49] Rocca, E., Caillet, C., Mesbah, A., Francois, M., and Steinmetz, J., 2006, Intercalation in zinc-layered hydroxide: Zinc hydroxyheptanoate used as protective material on zinc, Chem. Mater., 18 (26), 6186–6193.

[50] Demel, J., Kubát, P., Jirka, I., Kovář, P., Pospíšil, M., and Lang, K., 2010, Inorganic-organic hybrid materials: Layered zinc hydroxide salts with intercalated porphyrin sensitizers, J. Phys. Chem. C, 114 (39), 16321–16328.

[51] Da Silva, M.L.N., Marangoni, R., Cursino, A.C.T., Schreiner, W.H., and Wypych, F., 2012, Colorful and transparent poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films filled with layered zinc hydroxide salts, intercalated with anionic orange azo dyes (methyl orange and orange II), Mater. Chem. Phys., 134 (1), 392–398.

[52] Arízaga, G.G.C., 2012, Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids, J. Solid State Chem., 185, 150–155.

[53] Khadiran, N.F., Hussein, M.Z., Ahmad, R., Khadiran, T., Zainal, Z., Wan Abdul Kadir, W.R., and Hashim, S.S., 2021, Preparation and properties of zinc layered hydroxide with nitrate and phosphate as the counter anion, a novel control release fertilizer formulation, J. Porous Mater., 28 (6), 1797–1811.

[54] Abdul Aziz, I.N.F., Sarijo, S.H., Mohd Rajidi, F.S., Yahaya, R., and Musa, M., 2019, Synthesis and characterization of novel 4-aminobenzoate interleaved with zinc layered hydroxide for potential sunscreen application, J. Porous Mater., 26 (3), 717–722.

[55] Hussein, M.Z., Hashim, N., Yahaya, A.H., and Zainal, Z., 2010, Synthesis and characterization of [4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyrate)-zinc layered hydroxide] nanohybrid, Solid State Sci., 12 (5), 770–775.

[56] Salleh, N.M., Mohsin, S.M.N., Sarijo, S.H., and Ghazali, S.A.I.S.M., 2017, Synthesis and physico-chemical properties of zinc layered hydroxide-4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy acetic acid (ZMCPA) nanocomposite, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng., 204, 012012.

[57] Saifullah, B., El Zowalaty, M.E., Arulselvan, P., Fakurazi, S., Webster, T.J., Geilich, B.M., and Hussein, M.Z., 2014, Antimycobacterial, antimicrobial, and biocompatibility properties of para-aminosalicylic acid with zinc layered hydroxide and Zn/Al layered double hydroxide nanocomposite, Drug Des., Dev. Ther., 8, 1029–1036.

[58] Adam, N., Sheikh Mohd Ghazali, S.A.I., Dzulkifli, N.N., Jamion, N.A., and Jiwal, K., 2018, Synthesis and physiochemical properties of zinc layered hydroxide-cinnamate, Int. J. Eng. Technol., 7 (4.47), 49–51.

[59] Hashim, N., Mohd Sharif, S.N., Muda, Z., Md Isa, I., Mohd Ali, N., Abu Bakar, S., Sidik, S.M., and Hussein, M.Z., 2019, Preparation of zinc layered hydroxide-ferulate and coated zinc layered hydroxide ferulate nanocomposites for controlled release of ferulic acid, Mater. Res. Innovations, 23 (4), 233–245.

[60] Abdul Latip, A.F., Hussein, M.Z., Stanslas, J., Wong, C.C., and Adnan, R., 2013, Release behavior and toxicity profiles towards A549 cell lines of ciprofloxacin from its layered zinc hydroxide intercalation compound, Chem. Cent. J., 7 (1), 119–130.

[61] Cursino, A.C.T., Rives, V., Arizaga, G.G.C., Trujillano, R., and Wypych, F., 2015, Rare earth and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with the 2-aminobenzoate anion as organic luminescent sensitizer, Mater. Res. Bull., 70, 336–342.

[62] Jaafar, A.M., Anuar, A.N., Hashim, N., and Ayob, F.H., 2016, Intercalation study of curcumin into zinc layered hydroxide, Malays. J. Anal. Sci., 20 (6), 1359–1364.

[63] Abrantes Leal, D., Wypych, F., and Bruno Marino, C.E., 2020, Zinc-layered hydroxide salt intercalated with molybdate anions as a new smart nanocontainer for active corrosion protection of carbon steel, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 12 (17), 19823–19833.

[64] Velazquez-Carriles, C., Macias-Rodríguez, M.E., Carbajal-Arizaga, G.G., Silva-Jara, J., Angulo, C., and Reyes-Becerril, M., 2018, Immobilizing yeast β-glucan on zinc-layered hydroxide nanoparticle improves innate immune response in fish leukocytes, Fish Shellfish Immunol., 82, 504–513.

[65] Nabipour, H., Sadr, M.H., and Thomas, N., 2015, Synthesis, characterisation and sustained release properties of layered zinc hydroxide intercalated with amoxicillin trihydrate, J. Exp. Nanosci., 10 (16), 1269–1284.

[66] de Oliveira, H.B., and Wypych, F., 2016, Evaluation of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate and zinc/nickel double hydroxide salts in the removal of chromate ions from solutions, J. Solid State Chem., 243, 136–145.

[67] Liu, P., Li, Y., Xu, Y., Qing, Y., and Han, C., 2018, Chitosan assisted synthesis of multi-layered zinc carbonate hydroxides for massive removal of Cu2+ from water, J. Chil. Chem. Soc., 63 (1), 3819–3824.

[68] Almasri, D.A., Essehli, R., Tong, Y., and Lawler, J., 2021, Layered zinc hydroxide as an adsorbent for phosphate removal and recovery from wastewater, RSC Adv., 11 (48), 30172–3018.

[69] Younas, F., Mustafa, A., Farooqi, Z.U.R., Wang, X., Younas, S., Mohy-Ud-Din, W., Hameed, M.A., Abrar, M.M., Maitlo, A.A., Noreen, S., and Hussain, M.M., 2021, Current and emerging adsorbent technologies for wastewater treatment: Trends, limitations, and environmental implications, Water, 13 (2), 215.

[70] Jia, H.H., Xu, G.X., and Zhou, H.Y., 2012, Treatment of Pb2+-containing mine wastewater with layered nanometer zinc hydroxide, Adv. Mater. Res., 550-553, 2081–2084.

[71] Yu, G., Cheng, Y., and Duan, Z., 2022, Research progress of polymers/inorganic nanocomposite electrical insulating materials, Molecules, 27 (22), 7867.

[72] Ikhsani, I.U., Santosa, S.J., and Rusdiarso, B., 2016, Comparative study of Ni-Zn LHS and Mg-Al LDH adsorbents of navy blue and yellow F3G dye, Indones. J. Chem., 16 (1), 36–44.

[73] Jeevanandam, J., Barhoum, A., Chan, Y.S., Dufresne, A., and Danquah, M.K., 2018, Review on nanoparticles and nanostructured materials: history, sources, toxicity and regulations, Beilstein J. Nanotechnol., 9, 1050–1074.

[74] Ou, C., and Wang, D.W., 2021, Structural performance characteristics of nanomaterials and its application in traditional architectural cultural design and landscape planning, Adv. Civ. Eng., 2021, 5531679.

[75] Khan, Y., Sadia, H., Ali Shah, S.Z., Khan, M.N., Shah, A.A., Ullah, N., Ullah, M.F., Bibi, H., Bafakeeh, O.T., Ben Khedher, N., Eldin, S.M., Fadhl, B.M., and Khan, M.I., 2022, Classification, synthetic, and characterization approaches to nanoparticles, and their applications in various fields of nanotechnology: A review, Catalysts, 12 (11), 1386.

[76] Vollath, D., Fischer, F.D., and Holec, D., 2018, Surface energy of nanoparticles - influence of particle size and structure, Beilstein J. Nanotechnol., 9, 2265–2276.

[77] Heinz, H., Pramanik, C., Heinz, O., Ding, Y., Mishra, R.K., Marchon, D., Flatt, R.J., Estrela-Lopis, I., Llop, J., Moya, S., and Ziolo, R.F., 2017, Nanoparticle decoration with surfactants: Molecular interactions, assembly, and applications, Surf. Sci. Rep., 72 (1), 1–58.

[78] Pandey, R.K., Ao, C.K., Lim, W., Sun, Y., Di, X., Nakanishi, H., and Soh, S., 2020, The relationship between static charge and shape, ACS Cent. Sci., 6 (5), 704–714.

[79] Jain, R., Mathur, M., Sikarwar, S., and Mittal, A., 2007, Removal of the hazardous dye rhodamine B through photocatalytic and adsorption treatments, J. Environ. Manage., 85 (4), 956–964.

[80] Cao, J.L., Gaojie, L., Yan, W., Guang, S., Hari, B., Xiaodong, W., and Zhanying, Z., 2014, Synthesis and characterization of hierarchical porous α-FeOOH for the adsorption and photodegradation of rhodamine B, Int. J. Photoenergy, 2014, 468921.

[81] Kadam, R.L., Kim, Y., Gaikwad, S., Chang, M., Tarte N.H., and Han, S., 2020, Catalytic decolorization of rhodamine B, Congo red, and crystal violet dyes, with a novel niobium oxide anchored molybdenum (Nb–O–Mo), Catalysts, 10 (5), 491.

[82] Al-Gheethi, A.A., Azhar, Q.M., Senthil Kumar, P., Yusuf, A.A., Al-Buriahi, A.K., Radin Mohamed, R.M.S., and Al-shaibani, M.M., 2022, Sustainable approaches for removing rhodamine B dye using agricultural waste adsorbents: A review, Chemosphere, 287 (2), 132080.

[83] Thao, N.T., Ly, D.T.H., Nga, H.T.P., and Hoan, D.M., 2016, Oxidative removal of rhodamine B over Ti-doped layered zinc hydroxide catalysts, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 4 (4, Part A), 4012–4020.

[84] Wang, P., Guo, S., Wang, H.J., Chen, K.K., Zhang, N., Zhang, Z.M., and Lu, T.B., 2019, A broadband and strong visible-light-absorbing photosensitizer boosts hydrogen evolution, Nat. Commun., 10 (1), 3155.

[85] Taviot-Guého, C., Prévot, V., Forano, C., Renaudin, G., Mousty, C., and Leroux, F., 2017, Tailoring hybrid layered double hydroxides for the development of innovative applications, Adv. Funct. Mater., 28 (27), 1703868.

[86] Xu, R., and Xu, Y., 2017, “Functional Host–Guest Materials” in Modern Inorganic Synthetic Chemistry, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherland, 493–543.

[87] Takagi, S., Eguchi, M., Tryk, D.A., and Inoue, H., 2006, Porphyrin photochemistry in inorganic/organic hybrid materials: Clays, layered semiconductors, nanotubes, and mesoporous materials, J. Photochem. Photobiol., C, 7 (2), 104–126.

[88] Tarhini, A., Aguirre-Araque, J., Guyot, M., Costentin, C., Rogez, G., Chardon-Noblat, S., Prevot, V., and Mousty, C., 2023, Behavior of iron tetraphenylsulfonato porphyrin intercalated into LDH and LSH as materials for electrocatalytic applications, Electrocatalysis, 14, 111–120.

[89] Demel, J., and Lang, K., 2012, Layered hydroxide–porphyrin hybrid materials: Synthesis, structure, and properties, Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., 2012 (32), 5154–5164.

[90] Tang, P., Feng, Y., and Li, D., 2014, Facile synthesis of multicolor organic–inorganic hybrid pigments based on layered double hydroxides, Dyes Pigm., 104, 131–136.

[91] Marzec, A., Szadkowski, B., Rogowski, J., Maniukiewicz, W., Moszyński, D., Rybiński, P., and Zaborski, M., 2019, Carminic acid stabilized with aluminum-magnesium hydroxycarbonate as new colorant reducing flammability of polymer composites, Molecules, 24 (3), 560.

[92] Wang, X., Lu, J., Shi, W., Li, F., Wei, M., Evans, D.G., and Duan, X., 2010, A thermochromic thin film based on host-guest interactions in a layered double hydroxide, Langmuir, 26 (2), 1247–1253.

[93] Zhang, F.D., Chang, G.L., Shu, J.D., Haralampos, N.M., and Yu, F.S., 2021, Direct molecular confinement in layered double hydroxides: From fundamental to advanced photo-luminescent hybrid materials, Inorg. Chem. Front., 8, 1324–1333.

[94] Gao, R., Yan, D., and Duan, X., 2021, Layered double hydroxides-based smart luminescent materials and the tuning of their excited states, Cell Rep. Phys. Sci., 2 (8), 100536.

[95] Mosinger, J., Lang, K., and Kubát, P., 2016, Photoactivatable nanostructured surfaces for biomedical applications, Top. Curr. Chem., 370, 135–168.

[96] Xu, J., Cai, E., Zhang, S., Fan, X., Wang, M., Lou, F., Wang, M., Wang, X., and Xu, L., 2021, Nickel-vanadium layered double hydroxide nanosheets as the saturable absorber for a passively Q-switched 2 µm solid-state laser, Appl. Opt., 60 (7), 1851–1855.

[97] Chakraborty, P., Singh, P., Singh, J., and Tripathi, A., 2019, Novel layered Zn-Y hydroxide and study of their UV properties by intercalation of organic aliphatic and aromatic UV-absorbent molecules, AIP Conf. Proc., 2142 (1), 180001.

[98] Lerner, D.A., Bégu, S., Aubert-Pouëssel, A., Polexe, R., Devoisselle, J.M., Azaïs, T., and Tichit, D., 2020, Synthesis and properties of new multilayer chitosan@layered double hydroxide/drug loaded phospholipid bilayer nanocomposite bio-hybrids, Materials, 13 (16), 3565.

[99] Kalepu, S., and Nekkanti, V., 2015, Insoluble drug delivery strategies: Review of recent advances and business prospects, Acta Pharm. Sin. B, 5 (5), 442–453.

[100] Göke, K., Lorenz, T., Repanas, A., Schneider, F., Steiner, D., Baumann, K., Bunjes, H., Dietzel, A., Finke, J.H., Glasmacher, B., and Kwade, A., 2018, Novel strategies for the formulation and processing of poorly water-soluble drugs, Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm., 126, 40–56.

[101] Boyd, B.J., Bergström, C.A.S., Vinarov, Z., Kuentz, M., Brouwers, J., Augustijns, P., Brandl, M., Bernkop-Schnürch, A., Shrestha, N., Préat, V., Müllertz, A., Bauer-Brandl, A., and Jannin, V., 2019, Successful oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs both depends on the intraluminal behavior of drugs and of appropriate advanced drug delivery systems, Eur. J. Pharm. Sci., 137, 104967.

[102] Yang, J.H., Han, Y.S., Park, M., Park, T., Hwang, S.J., and Choy, J.H., 2007, New inorganic-based drug delivery system of indole-3-acetic acid-layered metal hydroxide nanohybrids with controlled release rate, Chem. Mater., 19 (10), 2679–2685.

[103] Hasan, S., Al Ali, H., Al-Qubaisi, M., Hussein, M.Z., Ismail, M., Zainal, Z., and Hakim, M.N., 2012, Controlled-release formulation of antihistamine based on cetirizine zinc-layered hydroxide nanocomposites and its effect on histamine release from basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells, Int. J. Nanomed., 7, 3351–3363.

[104] Ramli, M., Hussein, M.Z., and Yusof, K., 2013, Preparation and characterization of an anti-inflammatory agent based on a zinc-layered hydroxide-salicylate nanohybrid and its effect on viability of Vero-3 cells, Int. J. Nanomed., 8, 297–306.

[105] Saifullah, B., Arulselvan, P., Fakurazi, S., Webster, T.J., Bullo, N., Hussein, M.Z., and El Zowalaty, M.E., 2022, Development of a novel anti-tuberculosis nanodelivery formulation using magnesium layered hydroxide as the nanocarrier and pyrazinamide as a model drug, Sci. Rep., 12 (1), 14086.

[106] Akter, F., Muhury, R., Sultana, A., and Deb, U.K., 2022, A comprehensive review of mathematical modeling for drying processes of fruits and vegetables, Int. J. Food Sci., 2022, 6195257.

[107] Ramteke, K.H., Dighe, P.A., Kharat, A.R., and Patil, S.V., 2014, Mathematical models of drug dissolution: A review, Scholars Acad. J. Pharm., 3 (5), 388–396.

[108] Raza, S.N., and Khan, N.A., 2017, Role of mathematical modelling in controlled release drug delivery, Int. J. Med. Res. Pharm. Sci., 4 (5), 84–95.

[109] Trucillo, P., 2022, Drug carriers: A review on the most used mathematical models for drug release, Processes, 10 (6), 1094.

[110] Mansfeld, F.M., Davis, T.P., and Kavallaris, M., 2017, “Nanotechnology in Medical Research” in Micro- and Nanotechnology in Vaccine Development, Eds. Skwarczynski, M., and Toth, I., William Andrew Publishing, Norwich, New York, US, 21–45.

[111] Bruschi, M.L., 2015, Strategies to Modify the Drug Release from Pharmaceutical Systems, Woodhead Publishing, Kidlington, UK.

[112] Abbasnezhad, N., Kebdani, M., Shirinbayan, M., Champmartin, S., Tcharkhtchi, A., Kouidri, S., and Bakir, F., 2021, Development of a model based on physical mechanisms for the explanation of drug release: Application to diclofenac release from polyurethane films, Polymers, 13 (8), 1230.

[113] Mircioiu, C., Voicu, V., Anuta, V., Tudose, A., Celia, C., Paolino, D., Fresta, M., Sandulovici, R., and Mircioiu, I., 2019, Mathematical modeling of release kinetics from supramolecular drug delivery systems, Pharmaceutics, 11 (3), 140.

[114] Malekjani, N., and Jafari, S.M., 2020, Modeling the release of food bioactive ingredients from carriers/nanocarriers by the empirical, semiempirical, and mechanistic models, Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf., 20 (1), 3–47.

[115] Chiarappa, G., Abrami, M., Dapas, B., Farra, R., Trebez, F., Musiani, F., Grassi, G., and Grassi, M., 2017, Mathematical modeling of drug release from natural polysaccharides based matrices, Nat. Prod. Commun., 12 (6), 873–880.

[116] Öztürk, Y., Gülsu, A., and Gülsu, M., 2013, A numerical approach for solving modified epidemiological model for drug release systems, Nevşehir Bilim. Teknol. Derg., 2 (2), 56–64.

[117] Magnani, C., Isaac, V.L.B., Correa, M.A., and Salgado, H.R.N., 2014, Caffeic acid: A review of its potential use in medications and cosmetics, Anal. Methods, 6 (10), 3203–3210.

[118] Fernandes, I.A.A., Maciel, G.M., Ribeiro, V.R., Rossetto, R., Pedro, A.C., and Haminiuk, C.W.I., 2021, The role of bacterial cellulose loaded with plant phenolics in prevention of UV-induced skin damage, Carbohydr. Polym. Technol. Appl., 2, 100122.

[119] Kumar, N., and Pruthi, V., 2014, Potential applications of ferulic acid from natural sources, Biotechnol. Rep., 4, 86–93.

[120] Usman, M.S., Hussein, M.Z., Kura, A.U., Fakurazi, S., Masarudin, M.J., and Ahmad Saad, F.F., 2018, Synthesis and characterization of protocatechuic acid-loaded gadolinium-layered double hydroxide and gold nanocomposite for theranostic application, Appl. Nanosci., 8 (5), 973–986.

[121] AbouAitah, K., Piotrowska, U., Wojnarowicz, J., Swiderska-Sroda, A., El-Desoky, A.H.H., and Lojkowski, W., 2021, Enhanced activity and sustained release of protocatechuic acid, a natural antibacterial agent, from hybrid nanoformulations with zinc oxide nanoparticles, Int. J. Mol. Sci., 22 (10), 5287.

[122] Kuen, C.Y., Tieo, G., Fakurazi, S., Othman, S.S., and Masarudin, M.J., 2020, Increased cytotoxic efficacy of protocatechuic acid in A549 human lung cancer delivered via hydrophobically modified-chitosan nanoparticles as an anticancer modality, Polymers, 12 (9), 1951.

[123] Saifullah, B., Hussein, M.Z., Hussein-Al-Ali, S.H., Arulselvan, P., and Fakurazi, S., 2013, Sustained release formulation of an anti-tuberculosis drug based on paraamino salicylic acid-zinc layered hydroxide nanocomposite, Chem. Cent. J., 7 (1), 72–83.

[124] Najem Abed, N.A.R., Abudoleh, S.M., Alshawabkeh, I.D., Najem Abed, A.R., Abuthawabeh, R.K.A., and Hussein-Al-Ali, S.H., 2017, Aspirin drug intercalated into zinc-layered hydroxides as nanolayers: Structure and in vitro release, Nano Hybrids Compos., 18, 42–52.

[125] Ramimoghadam, D., Hussein, M.Z., and Taufiq-Yap, Y.H., 2012, The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the properties of ZnO synthesized by hydrothermal method, Int. J. Mol. Sci., 13 (10), 13275–13293.

[126] Muda, Z., Hashim, N., Isa, I.M., Bakar, S.A., Saidin, M.I., Ahmad, M.S., Mamat, M., and Hussein, M.Z., 2020, Carbamate insecticide release kinetics for controlled release formulation of isoprocarb insecticide from modified zinc layered hydroxide nanocomposite, J. Mater. Environ. Sci., 11 (3), 378–388.

[127] Hussein, M.Z., Nazarudin, N.F., Sarijo, S.H., and Yarmo, M.A., 2012, Synthesis of a layered organic-inorganic nanohybrid of 4-chlorophenoxyacetate-zinclayered hydroxide with sustained release properties, J. Nanomater., 2012, 860352.

[128] Hussein, M.Z., Abdul Rahman, N.S.S., Sarijo, S.H., and Zainal, Z., 2012, Herbicide intercalated zinc layered hydroxide nanohybrid for a dual-guest controlled release formulation, Int. J. Mol. Sci., 13 (6), 7328–7342.

[129] Navath, S., 2021, Design and synthesis of capecitabine-tris(nonofluorotert-butyl) a highly symmetrical fluorinated hydrocarbons as multifunctional image-guided drug delivery vehicles using CuAAC reaction, J. Drug Delivery Controlled Release, 1, 1–7.

[130] Grassi, M., and Grassi, G., 2014, Application of mathematical modeling in sustained release delivery systems, Expert Opin. Drug Delivery, 11 (8), 1299–1321.

[131] Wang, S., Liu, R., Fu, Y., and Kao, W.J., 2020, Release mechanisms and applications of drug delivery systems for extended-release, Expert Opin. Drug Delivery, 17 (9), 1289–1304.

[132] Heng, P.W.S., 2018, Controlled release drug delivery systems, Pharm. Dev. Technol., 23 (9), 833.

[133] Irfan, S.A., Razali, R., KuShaari, K., Mansor, N., Azeem, B., and Versypt, A.N.F., 2018, A review of mathematical modeling and simulation of controlled-release fertilizers, J. Controlled Release, 271, 45–54.

[134] Banerjee, S., Mazumder, S., Chatterjee, D., Bose, S., and Majee, S.B., 2022, “Nanotechnology for cargo delivery with a special emphasis on pesticide, herbicide, and fertilizer” in Nano-enabled Agrochemicals in Agriculture, Eds. Ghorbanpour, M., and Shahid, M.A., Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford, 105–136.

[135] Ahmad, R., Hussein, M.Z., Wan Abdul Kadir, W.R., Sarijo, S.H., and Yun Hin, T.Y., 2015, Evaluation of controlled-release property and phytotoxicity effect of insect pheromone zinc-layered hydroxide nanohybrid intercalated with hexenoic acid, J. Agric. Food Chem., 63 (51), 10893–10902.

[136] Mohd Sharif, S.N., Hashim, N., Md Isa, I., Abu Bakar, S., Saidin, M.I., Ahmad, M.S., Mamat, M., Hussein, M.Z., Zainul, R., and Kamari, A., 2021, The effect of swellable carboxymethyl cellulose coating on the physicochemical stability and release profile of a zinc hydroxide nitrate–sodium dodecylsulphate–imidacloprid, Chem. Phys. Impact, 2, 100017.

[137] Mohd Sharif, S.N., Hashim, N., Md Isa, I., Abu Bakar, S., Saidin, M.I., Ahmad, M.S., Mamat, M., Hussein, M.Z., and Zainul, R., 2021, Carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel based formulations of zinc hydroxide nitrate-sodium dodecylsulphate-bispyribac nanocomposite: Advancements in controlled release formulation of herbicide, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 21 (21), 5867–5880.

[138] MadJin, H.M., Hashim, N., Md Isa, I., Hussein, M.Z., Abu Bakar, S., Mamat, M., Ahmad, R., and Zainul, R., 2020, Synthesis and characterisation of zinc hydroxides nitrates–sodium dodecyl sulphate fluazinam nano hosts for release properties, J. Porous Mater., 27 (5), 1467–1479.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 929 | views : 434

Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.