Superparamagnetic Composite of Magnetite-CTAB as an Efficient Adsorbent for Methyl Orange

Nor Harisah(1), Dwi Siswanta(2), Mudasir Mudasir(3), Suyanta Suyanta(4*)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


In this study, a superparamagnetic composite of magnetite-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) has been prepared by the coprecipitation method and then applied as a charge-selective adsorbent of anionic methyl orange (MO). The VSM (Vibrating Sample Magnetometer) measurement suggests the superparamagnetic property of MNPs (Magnetite Nano Particles) with a magnetic saturation of 49.2 emu g–1. The SEM image exhibits the significant difference in particle size from nanometers in uncoated magnetite to micrometers in magnetite-CTAB. Calculations with ImageJ software indicate that the diameter of the composite is in the range of 2–13 µm, with an average diameter of 6.56 µm, possibly consisting of hundreds to thousands of magnetite-CTAB micelles. The adsorption kinetics of MO over magnetite-CTAB follows the pseudo-second-order adsorption model of Ho and McKay with a rate constant (k2) of 3.54 × 103 g mol–1 min. The adsorption isotherm is well described by the Langmuir model with a Langmuir constant (KL) of 7.46 × 104 L mol and a maximum capacity (qm) of 27.9 mg g–1. The developed material is intriguing because it can be easily and quickly recovered using an external magnet after adsorption and selectively adsorbs anionic dyes.


superparamagnetic; composite; magnetite-CTAB; adsorption; methyl orange


[1] Mahdavi, M, Ahmad, M.B., Haron, M.J., Namvar, F., Nadi, B., Ab Rahman, M.Z., and Amin, J., 2013, Synthesis, surface modification and characterisation of biocompatible magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications, Molecules, 18 (7), 7533–7548.

[2] Gan, L., Lu, Z., Cao, D., and Chen, Z., 2018, Effects of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide on the morphology of green synthesized MNPsused to remove phosphate, Mater. Sci. Eng., C, 82, 41–45.

[3] Khoshnevisan, K., Barkhi, M., Zare, D., Davoodi, D., and Tabatabaei, M., 2012, Preparation and characterization of CTAB-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles, Synth. React. Inorg., Met.-Org., Nano-Met. Chem., 42 (5), 644–648.

[4] Lellis, B., Fávaro-Polonio, C.Z., Pamphile, J.A., and Polonio, J.C., 2019, Effects of textile dyes on health and the environment and bioremediation potential of living organisms, Biotechnol. Res. Innovation, 3 (2), 275–290.

[5] Rajabi, A.A., Yamini, Y., Faraji, M., and Nourmohammadian, F., 2016, Modified magnetite nanoparticles with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as superior adsorbent for rapid removal of the disperse dyes from wastewater of textile companies, Nanochem. Res., 1 (1), 49–56.

[6] Aquino, J.M., Rocha-Filho, R.C., Ruotolo, L.A.M., Bocchi, N., and Biaggio, S.R., 2014, Electrochemical degradation of a real textile wastewater using β-PbO2 and DSA® anodes, Chem. Eng. J., 251, 138–145.

[7] Khatri, J., Nidheesh, P.V., Anantha Singh, T.S., and Kumar, M.S., 2018, Advanced oxidation processes based on zero-valent aluminium for treating textile wastewater, Chem. Eng. J., 348, 67–73.

[8] Sabna, V., Thampi, S.G., and Chandrakaran, S., 2018, Adsorptive removal of cationic and anionic dyes using graphene oxide, Water Sci. Technol., 78 (4), 732–742.

[9] Kasperchik, V.P., Yaskevich, A.L., and Bil’dyukevich, A.V., 2012, Wastewater treatment for removal of dyes by coagulation and membrane processes, Pet. Chem., 52 (7), 545–556.

[10] Estelrich, J., Escribano, E., Queralt, J., and Busquets, M.A., 2015, Iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetically-guided and magnetically-responsive drug delivery, Int. J. Mol. Sci., 16 (4), 8070–8101.

[11] Zemtsova, E.G., Ponomareva, A.N., Panchuk, V.V., Galiullina, L.F., and Smirnov, V.M., 2017, Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of magnetite-SiO2 nanocomposites with core-shell structures for targeted drug delivery, Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci., 52, 82–90.

[12] Kristianto, H., Reynaldi, E., Prasetyo, S., and Sugih, A.K., 2020, Adsorbed leucaena protein on citrate modified magnetite nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, and its application as magnetic coagulant, Sustainable Environ. Res., 30 (1), 32.

[13] Yew, Y.P., Shameli, K., Miyake, M., Kuwano, N., Bt Ahmad Khairudin, N.B., Bt Mohamad, S.E., and Lee, K.X., 2016, Green synthesis of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles using seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) extract, Nanoscale Res. Lett., 11 (1), 276.

[14] El-Dib, F.I., Mohamed, D.E., El-Shamy, O.A.A., and Mishrif, M.R., 2020, Study the adsorption properties of magnetite nanoparticles in the presence of different synthesized surfactants for heavy metal ions removal, Egypt. J. Pet., 29 (1), 1–7.

[15] Huang, R., Liu, Q., Huo, J., and Yang, B., 2017, Adsorption of methyl orange onto protonated cross-linked chitosan, Arabian J. Chem., 10, 24–32.

[16] Subasioglu, T., and Bilkay, I.S., 2009, Determination of biosorption conditions of methyl orange by humicolafuscoatra, J. Sci. Ind. Res., 68, 1075–1077.

[17] Alzaydien, A.S., 2015, Adsorption behavior of methyl orange onto wheat bran: Role of surface and pH, Orient. J. Chem., 31 (2), 643–651.

[18] Krika, F., and Benlahbib, O.F., 2015, Removal of methyl orange from aqueous solution via adsorption on cork as a natural and low-cost adsorbent: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study of the removal process, Desalin. Water Treat., 53 (13), 3711–3723.

[19] Fisli, A., Winatapura, D.S., and Alfian, A., 2018, The surface functionalization of Fe3O4 nanoparticles by CTAB as adsorbent for methyl orange elimination in water, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 1091, 012002.

[20] Edet, U.A., and Ifelebuegu, A.O., 2020, Kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic modeling of the adsorption of phosphates from model wastewater using recycled brick waste, Processes, 8 (6), 665.

[21] Gaffer, A., Al Kahlawy, A.A., and Aman, D., 2017, Magnetic zeolite-natural polymer composite for adsorption of chromium (VI), Egypt. J. Pet., 26 (4), 995–999.

[22] Guivar, J.A.R., Sanches, E.A., Magon, C.J., and Fernandes, E.G.R., 2015, Preparation and characterization of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-stabilized Fe3O4 nanoparticles for electrochemistry detection of citric acid, J. Electroanal. Chem., 755, 158–166.

[23] Elfeky, S.A., Mahmoud, S.E., and Youssef, A.F., 2017, Applications of CTAB modified magnetic nanoparticles for removal of chromium (VI) from contaminated water, J. Adv. Res., 8 (4), 435–443.

[24] Viana, R.B., da Silva, A.B.F., and Pimentel, A.S., 2012, Infrared spectroscopy of anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic surfactants, Adv. Phys. Chem., 2012, 903272.

[25] Muniz, F.T., Miranda, M.A.R., Dos Santos, C.M., and Sasaki, J.M., 2016, The Scherrer equation and the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction, Acta Crystallogr., Sect. A: Found. Adv., 72 (3), 385–390.

[26] Liu, Y., 2013, Recent progress in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy study of compositional, structural and physical attributes of developmental cotton fibers, Materials, 6 (1), 299–313.

[27] Faghihian, H., Moayed, M., Firooz, A., and Iravani, M., 2014, Evaluation of a new magnetic zeolite composite for removal of Cs+ and Sr2+ from aqueous solutions: Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies, C.R. Chim., 17 (2), 108–117.

[28] Baumgartner, J., Bertinetti, L., Widdrat, M., Hirt, A.M., and Faivre, D., 2013, Formation of MNPsat low temperature: from superparamagnetic to stable single-domain particles, PLoS One, 8 (3), e57070.

[29] Kahlert, H., Meyer, G. and Albrecht, A., 2016, Colour maps of acid-base titrations with colour indicators: how to choose the appropriate indicator and how to estimate the systematic titration errors, ChemTexts, 2 (2), 7.

[30] Kajjumba, G.W., Emik, S., Öngen, A., Özcan, H.K., Aydın, S., 2018, “Modelling of Adsorption Kinetic Processes–Errors, Theory, and Application” in Advanced Sorption Process Applications, Eds. Edebali, S., IntechOpen, Rijeka, Croatia.

[31] Aliakbarian, B., Casazza, A.A., and Perego, P., 2015, Kinetic and isotherm modelling of the adsorption of phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater onto activated carbon, Food Technol. Biotechnol., 53 (2), 207–214.

[32] Armenise, S., García-Bordejé, E., Valverde, J.L., Romeo, E., and Monzón, A., 2013, A Langmuir–Hinshelwood approach to the kinetic modelling of catalytic ammonia decomposition in an integral reactor, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 15 (29), 12104–12117.

[33] Sauer, E., and Gross, J., 2019, Prediction of adsorption isotherms and selectivities: Comparison between classical density functional theory based on the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory equation of state and ideal adsorbed solution theory, Langmuir, 35 (36), 11690–11701.

[34] Obaid, S.A., 2020, Langmuir, Freundlich, Tamkin, Adsorption isotherms and kinetics for the removal Aartichoke tournefortii straw from agricultural waste, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 1664, 012011.

[35] Shiue, A., Ma, C.M., Ruan, R.T., and Chang, C.T., 2012, Adsorption kinetics and isotherms for the removal methyl orange from wastewaters using copper oxide catalyst prepared by the waste printed circuit boards, Sustainable Environ. Res., 22 (4), 209–215.

[36] Qin, Q., Ma, J., and Liu, K., 2009, Adsorption of anionic dyes on ammonium-functionalized MCM-41, J. Hazard. Mater., 162 (1), 133–139.

[37] Iida, Y., Kozuka, Tuziuti, T., and Yasui, K., 2004, Sonochemically enhanced adsorption and degradation of methyl orange with activated aluminas, Ultrasonics, 42 (1), 635–639.

[38] Wang, X., 2011, Preparation of magnetic hydroxyapatite and their use as recyclable adsorbent for phenol in wastewater, Clean: Soil, Air, Water, 39 (1), 13–20.

[39] Istratie, R., Stoia, M., Păcurariu, C., and Locovei, C., 2019, Single and simultaneous adsorption of methyl orange and phenol onto magnetic iron oxide/carbon nanocomposites, Arabian J. Chem., 12 (8), 3704–3722.

[40] Luo, X., and Zhang, L., 2009, High effective adsorption of organic dyes on magnetic cellulose beads entrapping activated carbon, J. Hazard. Mater., 171 (1-3), 340–347.

[41] Xie, Y., Qian, D., Wu, D., and Ma, X., 2011, Magnetic halloysite nanotubes/iron oxide composites for the adsorption of dyes, Chem. Eng. J., 168 (2), 959–963.

[42] Wu, D., Zheng, P., Chang, P.R., and Ma, X., 2011, Preparation and characterization of magnetic rectorite/iron oxide nanocomposites and its application for the removal of the dyes, Chem. Eng. J., 174 (1), 489–494.

[43] Zhu, H.Y., Jiang, R., Xiao, L., and Li, W., 2010, A novel magnetically separable γ-Fe2O3/cross-linked chitosan adsorbent: Preparation, characterization and adsorption application for removal of hazardous azo dye, J. Hazard. Mater., 179, 251–257.

[44] Chowdhury, Z.Z., Zain, S.M., Khan, R.A., and Islam, M.S., 2012, Preparation and characterizations of activated carbon from kenaf fiber for equilibrium adsorption studies of copper from wastewater, Korean J. Chem. Eng., 29 (9), 1187–1195.

[45] Jaycock, M.J., and Parfitt, G.D., 1981, Chemistry of Interfaces, Halstead Press, Ultimo, NSW, Australia.

[46] Wu, L, Zhang, G., and Lin, J., 2020, The physiochemical properties and adsorption characteristics of processed pomelo peel as a carrier for epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Molecules, 25 (18), 4249.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2946 | views : 1798 | views : 852

Copyright (c) 2022 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.