The Origin, Physicochemical Properties, and Removal Technology of Metallic Porphyrins from Crude Oils

Jumina Jumina(1*), Yehezkiel Steven Kurniawan(2), Dwi Siswanta(3), Bambang Purwono(4), Abdul Karim Zulkarnain(5), Agustinus Winarno(6), Joko Waluyo(7), Johan Syafri Mahathir Ahmad(8)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia Ma Chung Research Center for Photosynthetic Pigments, Universitas Ma Chung, Malang 65151, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(5) Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(6) Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vocational College, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(7) Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika No. 2 UGM Campus, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(8) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika No. 2 UGM Campus, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Crude oil is an indispensable energy feedstock for daily activities, although some amounts of metallic porphyrins components with undesired characteristics have been identified. These constituents are assumed to originate from the geochemical process of chlorophyll and heme derivatives. In addition, their chemical structures have been thoroughly characterized using spectroscopy techniques, while several analytical methods were adopted in the detection and concentration quantification in the crude oils. The metallic porphyrins have several demerits, including the deactivation of used catalysts, contamination of the treated petrochemical products, and corrosion of the industrial equipment. Also, the removal process is considered challenging due to the strong interaction with the asphaltene fraction of crude oil. This review article, therefore, provides brief information on the origin, physicochemical properties, and possible removal technology of metallic porphyrins from crude oil samples. Besides, a better understanding of chemistry contributes a useful insight towards the development and establishment of better futuristic processing technology.


crude oil; metallic porphyrin; origin; property; removal

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