Equilibrium Modeling of Astaxanthin Extraction from Haematococcus pluvialis

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.56965

Putri Restu Dewati(1), Rochmadi Rochmadi(2), Abdul Rohman(3), Avido Yuliestyan(4), Arief Budiman(5*)

(1) Chemical Engineering Department, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Yogyakarta, Jl. SWK No. 104, Yogyakarta 55283, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika 2, Yogyakarta 55284, Indonesia
(3) Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia
(4) Chemical Engineering Department, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Yogyakarta, Jl. SWK No. 104, Yogyakarta 55283, Indonesia
(5) Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika 2, Yogyakarta 55284, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Astaxanthin is a natural antioxidant, and the highest content of this compound is found in Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) is one of the environmentally friendly extraction methods and has many advantages. This study aims to investigate the extraction of astaxanthin through the MAE method using various solvents. Several equilibrium models were proposed to describe this solid-liquid equilibrium. The solid-liquid extraction equilibrium parameters were determined by minimizing the sum of squares of errors (SSE), in which equilibrium constants were needed for scaling up purposes. Previously, the microalgae were pretreated with HCl to soften their cell walls in order to improve the extraction recovery. In this study, dichloromethane, acetone, methanol, and ethanol were used as the solvents for extraction. The astaxanthin concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometry. Astaxanthin was found to attain equilibrium at 57.42% recovery in a single-step extraction. Thus, several steps were required in sequence to obtain an optimum recovery. The experimental data were fitted to three equilibrium models, namely, Henry, Freundlich, and Langmuir models. The experimental data were well fitted to all the models for the extraction in dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol and acetone, as evident from the almost same SSE value for each model.


Keywords


equilibrium constant; mass transfer coefficient; Henry; Freundlich; Langmuir

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


References

[1] Lee, S.A., Lee, N., Oh, H.M., Kim, D.G., and Ahm, C.Y., 2020, Fast-track production of astaxanthin by reduced cultivation time with the “red cell inoculation system” (RCIS) and various chemical cues in Haematococcus lacustris, J. Appl. Phycol., 32 (1), 41–50.

[2] Krichnavaruk, S., Shotipruk, A., Goto, M., and Pavasant P., 2008, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis with vegetable oils as co-solvent, Bioresour. Technol., 99 (13), 5556–5560.

[3] Wang, L., Yang, B., Yan, B., and Yao, X., 2012, Supercritical fluid extraction of asatxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis and its antioxidant potential in sunflower oil, Innovative Food Sci. Emerg. Technol., 13, 120–127.

[4] Ambati, R.R., Phang, S.M., Ravi, S., and Aswathanarayana, R.G., 2014, Astaxanthin: Sources, extraction, stability, biological activities and its commercial applications–A review, Mar. Drugs, 12 (1), 128–152.

[5] Dong, S., Huang, Y., Zhang, R., Wang, S., and Liu, Y., 2014, Four different methods comparison for extraction of astaxanthin from green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, Sci. World J., 2014, 694305.

[6] Zhao, T., Yan, X., Sun, L., Yang, T., Hu, X., He, Z., Liu, F., and Liu, X., 2019, Research progress on extraction, biological activities and delivery systems of natural astaxanthin, Trends Food Sci. Technol., 91, 354–361.

[7] Khoo, K.S., Chew, K.W., Ooi, C.W., Ong, H.C., Ling, T.C., and Show, P.L., 2019, Extraction of natural astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis using liquid biphasic flotation system, Bioresour. Technol., 290, 121794.

[8] Fan, Y., Niu, Z., Xu, C., Yang, L., Chen, F., and Zhang, H., 2019, Biocompatible protic ionic liquids-based microwave-assisted liquid-solid extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis, Ind. Crops Prod., 141, 111809.

[9] Haque, F., Dutta, A., Thimmanagari, M., and Chiang, Y.W., 2016, Intensified green production of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis, Food Bioprod. Process., 99, 1–11.

[10] Shang, M., Ding, W., Zhao, Y., Xu, J.W., Zhao, P., Li, T., Ma, H., and Yu, X., 2016, Enhanced astaxanthin production from Haematococcus pluvialis using butylated hydroxyanisole, J. Biotechnol., 236, 199–207.

[11] Sun, H., Guan, B., Kong, Q., Geng, Z., and Wang, N., 2016, Repeated cultivation: Non-cell disruption extraction of asatxanthin for Haematococcus pluvialis, Sci. Rep., 6 (1), 20578.

[12] Morais, S., 2013, “Ultrasonic and microwave - assisted extraction and modification of algal components”, in Functional Ingredients from Algae for Foods and Nutraceuticals, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 585–605.

[13] Chuyeng, H.V., Nguyen, M.H., Roach, P.D., Golding, J.B., and Parks, S.E., 2018, Microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction for recovering carotenoids from Gac peel and their effects on antioxidant capacity of the extracts, Food Sci. Nutr., 6 (1), 189–196.

[14] Ruen-ngam, D., Shotipruk, A., and Pavasant, P., 2011, Comparison of extraction methods for recovery of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis, Sep. Sci. Technol., 46 (1), 64–70.

[15] Zhao, X., Zhang, X., Fu, L., Zhu, H., and Zhang, B., 2016, Effect of extraction and drying methods on antioxidant activity of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis, Food Bioprod. Process., 99, 197–203.

[16] Zhao, L., Chen, G., Zhao, G., and Hu, X., 2009, Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis by response surface methodology and antioxidant activities of the extracts, Sep. Sci. Technol., 44 (1), 243–262.

[17] Shakir, I.K., 2017, Mass transfer coefficient of the extraction process of essential oil from Myrtus communis L. plants using different solvents, The 8th Jordan International Chemical Engineering Conference (JIChEC 2017), Jordan, November 7–9, 2017.

[18] Honarvar, B., Sajadian, S.A., Khorram, M., and Samimi, A., 2013, Mathematical modeling of supercritical fluid extraction of oil from canola and sesame seeds, Braz. J. Chem. Eng., 30 (1), 159–166.

[19] Perry, R.H., and Green, D.W., 1999, “Adsorption and ion exchange” in Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, 7th Ed., Mc. Graw Hill, USA, 1497–1562.

[20] Megawati, Fardhyanti, D.S., Sediawan, B.W., and Hisyam, A., 2019, Kinetics of mace (Myristicae arillus) essential oil extraction using microwave assisted hydrodistillation: Effect of microwave power, Ind. Crops Prod., 131, 315–322.

[21] Seader, J.D., Henley, E.J., and Roper, D.K., 2011, “Adsorption, ion exchange, chromatography, and electrophoresis” in Separation Process Principle: Chemical and Biochemical Operation, 3rd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., USA, 568–632.

[22] Sarada, R., Vidhyavathi, R., Usha, D., and Ravishankar, G.A., 2006, An efficient method for extraction of astaxanthin from green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, J. Agric. Food Chem., 54 (20), 7585–7588.

[23] Galarza, J.I., Arredondo-Vega, B.O., Villón, J., and Henríquez, V., 2019, Deesterification of astaxanthin and intermediate esters from Haematococcus pluvialis subjected to stress, Biotechnol. Rep., 23, e00351.

[24] Di Caprio, F., Altimari, P., Toro, L., and Pagnanelli, F., 2015, Effect of lipids and carbohydrates extraction on astaxanthin stability in Scenedesmus sp., Chem. Eng. Trans., 43, 205–210.

[25] Saini, R.K., and Keum, Y.S., 2018, Carotenoid extraction methods: A review of recent development, Food Chem., 240, 90–103.

[26] Dewati, P.R., Rochmadi, Rochman, A., and Budiman, A., 2020, A preliminary study of extraction and purification processes of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis as a natural antioxidant, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng., 778, 012032.

[27] Kim, D.Y., Vijayan, D., Praveenkumar, R., Han, J.I., Lee, K., Park, J.Y., Chang, W.S., Lee, J.S., and Oh, Y.K., 2016, Cell-wall disruption and lipid/astaxanthin extraction from microalgae: Chlorella and Haematococcus, Bioresour. Technol., 199, 300–310.

[28] Li, Y., Miao, F., Geng, Y., Lu, D., Zhang, C., and Zeng, M., 2012, Accurate quantification of astaxanthin from Haematococcus crude extract spectrophotometrically, Chin. J. Oceanol. Limnol., 30 (4), 627–637.

[29] Takeungwongtrakul, S., and Benjakul, S., 2016, Astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation of Pacific white shrimp oil: Kinetic study and stability as affected by storage condition, Int. Aquat. Res., 8 (1), 15–27.

[30] Su, F., Xu, H., Yang, N., Liu, W., and Liu, J., 2018, Hydrolytic efficiency and isomerization during de-esterification of natural astaxanthin esters by saponification and enzymolysis, Electron. J. Biotechnol., 34, 37–42.

[31] Reyes, F.A., Mendiola, J.A., Ibanez, E., and del Valle, J.M., 2014, Astaxanthin extraction from Haematococcus pluvialis using CO2-expanded ethanol, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 92, 75–83.

[32] Tzanova, M., Argirova, M., and Atanasov, V., 2016, HPLC quantification of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in Salmonidae eggs, Biomed. Chromatogr., 31 (4), e3852.

[33] Hu, J., Lu, W., Lv, M., Wang, Y., Ding, R., and Wang, L., 2019, Extraction and purification of astaxanthin from shrimp shells and the effects of different treatments on its content, Rev. Bras. Farmacogn., 29 (1), 24–29.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.56965

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1098 | views : 533


Copyright (c) 2021 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Web
Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.