Methylene Blue Adsorption onto Cockle Shells-Treated Banana Pith: Optimization, Isotherm, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Studies

Rosalyza Hasan(1), Wong Jie Ying(2), Chong Chi Cheng(3), Nur Farhana Jaafar(4), Rohayu Jusoh(5), Aishah Abdul Jalil(6), Herma Dina Setiabudi(7*)

(1) Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak 26300, Gambang, Pahang, Malaysia
(2) Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak 26300, Gambang, Pahang, Malaysia
(3) Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak 26300, Gambang, Pahang, Malaysia
(4) School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang, Malaysia
(5) Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak 26300, Gambang, Pahang, Malaysia
(6) School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia; Centre of Hydrogen Energy, Institute of Future Energy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
(7) Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak 26300, Gambang, Pahang, Malaysia; Centre of Excellence for Advanced Research in Fluid Flow (CARIFF), Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak 26300, Gambang, Pahang, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding Author


Two low-cost wastes, banana pith (BP) and cockle shells (CS) were explored towards methylene blue (MB) removal. The performance of cockle shells-treated banana pith (CS-BP) in MB removal was compared with untreated BP and commercially Ca(OH)2-treated BP (Ca(OH)2-BP). The adsorption efficacy was following the order of BP < CS-BP < Ca(OH)2-BP, indicating the positive role of alkaline treatment towards MB removal and great potential of CS as a low-cost activation material. The optimization of MB removal onto CS-BP was executed by response surface methodology (RSM) with three independent variables (adsorbent dosage (X1), initial pH (X2) and initial MB concentration (X3)), and the optimal condition was achieved at X1 = 1.17 g/L, X2 = pH 7 and X3 = 214 mg/L, with 87.32% of predicted MB removal. The experimental data well-fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic (R2 > 0.99) and the Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.999) models, demonstrating the chemisorption and naturally homogeneous process. Thermodynamics study discovered that the MB removal by CS-BP is endothermic, feasible, spontaneous and randomness growth at a solid-solute interface. It is affirmed that CS could be employed as a low-cost activation material and CS-BP as a low-cost adsorbent.


cockleshells; banana pith; methylene blue; low-cost adsorbent; alkaline treatment

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Hasan, R., Razifuddin, N.A.M., Jusoh, N.W.C., Jusoh, R., and Setiabudi, H.D., 2018, Artocarpus integer peel as a highly effective low-cost adsorbent for methylene blue removal: Kinetics, isotherm, thermodynamic and pelletized studies, Malays. J. Fundam. Appl. Sci., 14 (1), 25–31.

[2] Hasan, R., Chong, C.C., Setiabudi, H.D., Jusoh, R., and Jalil, A.A., 2019, Process optimization of methylene blue adsorption onto eggshell-treated palm oil fuel ash, Environ. Technol. Innovation, 13, 62–73.

[3] Liu, Q., Yang, B., Zhang, L., and Huang, R., 2015, Adsorption of an anionic azo dye by cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 72, 1129–1135.

[4] Vezentsev, A., Thuy, D.M., Goldovskaya-Peristaya, L.F., and Glukhareva, N.A., 2018, Adsorption of methylene blue on the composite sorbent based on bentonite-like clay and hydroxyapatite, Indones. J. Chem., 18 (4), 733–741.

[5] Abdullah, R.H., Oda, A.M., Omran, A.R., Mottaleb, A.S., and Mubarakah, T.M., 2018, Study of adsorption characteristics a low-cost sawdust for the removal of direct blue 85 dye from aqueous solutions, Indones. J. Chem., 18 (4), 724–732.

[6] Osasona, I., Aiyedatiwa, K., Johnson, J.A., and Faboya, O.L., 2018, Activated carbon from spent brewery barley husks for cadmium ion adsorption from aqueous solution, Indones. J. Chem., 18 (1), 145–152.

[7] Taba, P., 2009, Nitrogen, water and benzene adsorption in mesoporous carbon (CMK-1) and commercial activated carbon (NORIT SX22), Indones. J. Chem., 9 (3) 386–390.

[8] Fadzil, F., Ibrahim, S., and Hanafiah, M.A.K.M., 2016, Adsorption of lead(II) onto organic acid modified rubber leaf powder: Batch and column studies, Process Saf. Environ. Prot., 100, 1–8.

[9] Jain, S.N., and Gogate, P.R., 2017, Acid blue 113 removal from aqueous solution using novel biosorbent based on NaOH treated and surfactant-modified fallen leaves of Prunus dulcis, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 5 (4), 3384–3394.

[10] Setiabudi, H.D., Jusoh, R., Suhaimi, S.F.R.M., and Masrur, S.F., 2016, Adsorption of methylene blue onto oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) leaves: Process optimization, isotherm, kinetics, and thermodynamic studies, J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., 63, 363–370.

[11] Chen, L., Li, Y., Du, Q., Wang, Z., Xia, Y., Yedinak, E., Lou, J., and Ci, L., 2017, High-performance agar/graphene oxide composite aerogel for methylene blue removal, Carbohydr. Polym., 155, 345–353.

[12] Langmuir, I., 1918, The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 40 (9), 1361–1403.

[13] Freundlich, H., 1906, Over adsorption in solution, J. Phys. Chem. A, 57, 385–470.

[14] Tempkin, M.I., and Pyzhev, V., 1940, Kinetics of ammonia synthesis on promoted iron catalyst, Acta Physicochim. U.R.S.S., 12, 327–356.

[15] Dubinin, M.M., 1906, The potential theory of adsorption of gases and vapors for adsorbents with an energetically non-uniform surface, Chem. Rev., 60 (2), 235–241.

[16] Hasan, R., Bukhari, S.N., Jusoh, R., Mutamin, N.S.A., and Setiabudi, H.D., 2018, Adsorption of Pb(II) onto KCC-1 from aqueous solution: Isotherm and kinetic study, Mater. Today: Proc., 5 (10), 21574–21583.

[17] Spagnoli, A.A., Giannakoudakis, D.A., and Bashkova, S., 2017, Adsorption of methylene blue on cashew nut shell based carbons activated with zinc chloride : The role of surface and structural parameters, J. Mol. Liq., 229, 465–471.

[18] Pathania, D., Sharma, S., and Singh, P., 2017, Removal of methylene blue by adsorption onto activated carbon developed from Ficus carica bast, Arabian J. Chem., 10 (Suppl. 1), S1445–S1451.

[19] Liang, S., Guo, X., Feng, N., and Tian, Q., 2010, Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic studies of adsorption of Cu2+ from aqueous solutions by Mg2+/K+ type orange peel adsorbents, J. Hazard. Mater., 174 (1-3), 756–762.

[20] Hameed, B.H., Mahmoud, D.K., and Ahmad, A.L., 2008, Equilibrium modeling and kinetic studies on the adsorption of basic dye by a low-cost adsorbent: Coconut (Cocos nucifera) bunch waste, J. Hazard. Mater., 158 (1), 65–72.

[21] Subramaniam, R., and Ponnusamy, S.K., 2015, Novel adsorbent from agricultural waste (cashew nut shell) for methylene blue dye removal: Optimization by response surface methodology, Water Resour. Ind., 11, 64–70.

[22] Lim, L.B.L., Priyantha, N., Tennakoon, D.T.B., Chieng, H.I., Dahri, M.K., and Suklueng, M., 2017, Breadnut peel as a highly effective low-cost biosorbent for methylene blue: Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies, Arabian J. Chem., 10 (Suppl. 2), S3216–S3228.

[23] Islam, M.A., Ahmed, M.J., Khanday, W.A., Asif, M., and Hameed, B.H., 2017, Mesoporous activated carbon prepared from NaOH activation of rattan (Lacosperma secundiflorum) hydrochar for methylene blue removal, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 138, 279–285.

[24] Saeed, M., Nadeem, R., and Yousaf, M., 2015, Removal of industrial pollutant (reactive orange 122 dye) using environment-friendly sorbent Trapa bispinosa’s peel and fruit, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 12 (4), 1223–1234.

[25] Dehghani, M.H., Dehghan, A., Alidadi, H., Dolatabadi, M., Mehrabpour, M., and Converti, A., 2017, Removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions by a new chitosan/zeolite composite from shrimp waste: Kinetic and equilibrium study, Korean J. Chem. Eng., 34 (6), 1699–1707.

[26] Khanday, W.A., Asif, M., and Hameed, B.H., 2017, Cross-linked beads of activated oil palm ash zeolite/chitosan composite as a bio-adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue and acid blue 29 dyes, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 95, 895–902.

[27] Güzel, F., Sayğılı, H., Sayğılı, G.A., Koyuncu, F., and Yılmaz, C., 2017, Optimal oxidation with nitric acid of biochar derived from pyrolysis of weeds and its application in removal of hazardous dye methylene blue from aqueous solution, J. Cleaner Prod., 144, 260–265.

[28] Karim, A.H., Jalil, A.A., Triwahyono, S., Kamarudin, N.H.N., and Ripin, A., 2014, Influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on textural and adsorption characteristics of in situ synthesized mesostructured silica, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 421, 93–102.

[29] Novais, R.M., Ascensão, G., Tobaldi, D.M., Seabra, M.P., and Labrincha, J.A., 2018, Biomass fly ash geopolymer monoliths for effective methylene blue removal from wastewaters, J. Cleaner Prod., 171, 783–794.

[30] Sugumaran, P., Susan, V.P., Ravichandran, P., and Seshadri, S., 2012, Production and characterization of activated carbon from banana empty fruit bunch and Delonix regia fruit pod, J. Sustainable Energy Environ., 3, 125–132.

[31] Khodabandehloo, A., Rahbar-Kelishami, A., and Shayesteh, H, 2017, Methylene blue removal using Salix babylonica (weeping willow) leaves powder as a low-cost biosorbent in batch mode: Kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic studies, J. Mol. Liq., 244, 540–548.

[32] Martín-González, M.A., Susial, P., Pérez-Peña, J., and Doña-Rodríguez, J.M., 2013, Preparation of activated carbons from banana leaves by chemical activation with phosphoric acid: Adsorption of methylene blue, Rev. Mex. Ing. Quím., 12 (3), 595–608.

[33] Hassan, W., Farooq, U., Ahmad, M., Athar, M., and Khan, M.A., 2017, Potential biosorbent, Haloxylon recurvum plant stems, for the removal of methylene blue dye, Arabian J. Chem., 10 (Suppl. 2), S1512–S1522.

[34] de Oliveira Brito, S.M., Andrade, H.M.C., Soares, L.F., and de Azevedo, R.P., 2010, Brazil nut shells as a new biosorbent to remove methylene blue and indigo carmine from aqueous solutions, J. Hazard. Mater., 174 (1-3), 84–92.

[35] Salleh, N.F.M., Jalil, A.A., Triwahyono, S., Ripin, A., Sidik, S.M., Fatah, N.A.A., Salamun, N., Jaafar, N.F., and Hassim, M.H., 2017, New direct consecutive formation of spinel phase in (Fe,Co,Ni)Al2O4 composites for enhanced Pd(II) ions removal, J. Alloys Compd., 727, 744–756.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 3198 | views : 2804

Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.