Photocatalytic Degradation of Amoxicillin Using UV/Synthesized NiO from Pharmaceutical Wastewater

Davoud Balarak(1*), Ferdos Kord Mostafapour(2)

(1) Department of Environmental Health, Health Promotion Research Center, School of Public Health, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
(2) Department of Environmental Health, Health Promotion Research Center, School of Public Health, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
(*) Corresponding Author


The nano nickel(II) oxide (NiO) was synthesized by sol-gel method and used for degradation of Amoxicillin (AMO) from pharmaceutical wastewater. In this laboratory study, the effects of nanoparticle dose (0.25–2 g/L), reaction time (10–120 min), initial antibiotic concentration (25–200 mg/L) and lamp power (15 W) on AMO removal efficiency were assessed in a batch photocatalytic reactor. Antibiotic concentration in output was measured by the spectrophotometer at the maximum wavelength of 280 nm. The optimum nano NiO dose was obtained to be 0.2 g/L. In this study, the removal efficiency decreased with increasing the concentration of AMO. Under optimal conditions of concentration, the removal efficiency was 96%. It was found that increasing the exposure time to UV increased the rate of AMO degradation in solution. The results also showed that the photo-degradation reaction approximately follows the pseudo-first-order kinetics with constant rates of 0.084, 0.074 and 0.046 min-1 for concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/L, respectively. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be concluded that UV/NiO photocatalytic process can efficiently remove AMO from pharmaceutical wastewater.


photocatalytic degradation; amoxicillin; nano nickel(II) oxide; kinetics

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