Functionalization of Chitosan with Maleic Anhydride for Proton Exchange Membrane

Muhammad Ridwan Septiawan(1), Dian Permana(2), Sitti Hadijah Sabarwati(3), La Ode Ahmad(4), La Ode Ahmad Nur Ramadhan(5*)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Halu Oleo University, Jl. Kampus Hijau Bumi Tridharma, Anduonou, Kendari 93132, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Sembilanbelas November University, Kolaka, Indonesia, Jl. Pemuda No. 339, Kolaka 931517, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Halu Oleo University, Jl. Kampus Hijau Bumi Tridharma, Anduonou, Kendari 93132, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemistry, Halu Oleo University, Jl. Kampus Hijau Bumi Tridharma, Anduonou, Kendari 93132, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia
(5) Department of Chemistry, Halu Oleo University, Jl. Kampus Hijau Bumi Tridharma, Anduonou, Kendari 93132, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Chitosan was modified by maleic anhydride, and it was then functionalized using heterogeneous and blending method to obtain the membrane. The results of the reaction between chitosan with maleic anhydride were signed by the new peak appears around 1475 cm-1 which attributed to C=C bending of alkene. The new peak also appears at 1590 cm-1 which attributed to N-H bending of amide. Chitosan-maleic anhydride membranes show microstructure of chitosan membrane with high porous density and rigidity while chitosan-maleic anhydride membranes have clusters. In addition, the thermal tenacity of membranes reached 500 °C. Modified membrane by heterogeneous and blending method have higher water uptake, ion exchange capacity, and proton conductivity than chitosan membrane. Moreover, the blending method is much more effective than the heterogeneous method that can be exhibited from ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity values of 1.08–6.38 meq g-1 and 1x10-3–1x10-2 S cm-1, 0.92–2.27 meq g-1 and 1.53x10-4–3.04x10-3 S cm-1, respectively. The results imply that modification of chitosan membrane with the addition of maleic anhydride using heterogeneous and blending method can be applied to proton exchange membrane.


chitosan; membrane; maleic anhydride; heterogeneous; blending method

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Haghighi, A.M., Hasani-Sadrabadi, M.M., Dashtimoghadam, E., Bahlakeh, G., Shakeri, S.E., Majedi, F.S., Emami, S.H., and Moaddel, H., 2011, Direct methanol fuel cell performance of sulfonated poly (2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide)-polybenzimidazole blend proton exchange membranes, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 36 (5), 3688–3696.

[2] Hickner, M.A., Ghassemi, H., Kim, Y.S., Einsla, B.R., and McGrath, J.E., 2004, Alternative polymer systems for proton exchange membranes (PEMs), Chem. Rev., 104 (10), 4587–4612.

[3] Wu, H., Zheng, B., Zheng, X., Wang, J., Yuan, W., and Jiang, Z., 2007, Surface-modified Y zeolite-filled chitosan membrane for direct methanol fuel cell, J. Power Sources, 173 (2), 842–852.

[4] Trung, T.S., Thein-Han, W.W., Qui, N.T., Ng, C.H., and Stevens, W.F., 2006, Functional characteristics of shrimp chitosan and its membranes as affected by the degree of deacetylation, Bioresour. Technol., 97 (4), 659–663.

[5] Cui, Z., Liu, C., Lu, T., and Xing, W., 2007, Polyelectrolyte complexes of chitosan and phosphotungstic acid as proton-conducting membranes for direct methanol fuel cell, J. Power Sources, 167 (1), 94–99.

[6] Salgado, J.R., 2007, Study of basic biopolymer as proton membrane fo fuel cell systems, Electrochim. Acta, 52 (11), 3766-–3778.

[7] Ramadhan, L.O.A.N., Radiman, C.L., Suendo, V., Wahyuningrum, D., and Valiyaveettil, S., 2012, Synthesis and characterization of polyelectrolyte complex N-succinylchitosan-chitosan for proton exchange membrane, Procedia Chem., 4, 114-122.

[8] Cheng, M., Huang, Y., Zhou, H., Liu, Z., and Li, J., 2010, Rapid preparation and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles for oligonucleotide, Curr. Appl. Phys., 10 (3), 797–800.

[9] Pillai, C.K.S., Paul, W., and Sharma, C.P., 2009, Chitin and chitosan polymers: chemistry, solubility and fiber formation, Prog. Polym. Sci., 34 (7), 641–678.

[10] Chen, Z., Zhang, H., Song, Z., and Qian, X., 2013, Preparation and application of maleic anhydride-acylated chitosan for wet strength improvement of paper, BioResources, 8 (3), 3901–3911.

[11] Fadzallah, I.A., Majid, S.R., Careem, M.A., and Arof, A.K., 2014, A study on ionic interactions in chitosan–oxalic acid polymer electrolyte membranes, J. Membr. Sci., 463, 65–72.

[12] Hemalatha, R., Chitra, R., Rathinam, X.R., and Sudha, P.N., 2011, Synthesizing and characterization of chitosan graft co polymer: Adsorption studies for Cu (II) and Cr (VI), Int. J. Environ. Sci., 2(2), 805-828.

[13] Kreuer, K.D., 2001, On the development of proton conducting polymer membranes for hydrogen and methanol fuel cells, J. Membr. Sci., 185 (1), 29–39.

[14] Peckham, T.J., Schmeisser, J., and Holdcroft, S., 2008, Relationships of acid and water content to proton transport in statistically sulfonated proton exchange membranes: Variation of water content via control of relative humidity, J. Phys. Chem. B, 112 (10), 2848–2858.

[15] Mukoma, P., Jooste, B.R., and Vosloo, H.C.M., 2004, Synthesis and characterization of cross-linked chitosan membranes for application as alternative proton exchange membrane material in fuel cell, J. Power Sources, 136 (1), 16–23.

[16] Zhang, W., Li, G., Fang, Y., and Wang, X., 2007, Maleic anhydride surface-modification of crosslinked chitosan and its pervaporation performance, J. Membr. Sci., 295 (1-2), 130–138.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 3677 | views : 3836

Copyright (c) 2018 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.