Impact of Cassava Leaf Meal as a Rice Bran Substitute and Enzyme Supplementation on Lymphoid Organ Weight and Digestibility in Broiler Chickens

Muhammad Ridla(1*), Ririn Angriani(2), Widya Hermana(3)

(1) Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Center for Tropical Animal Studies (CENTRAS), IPB University, Bogor, 16153,
(2) Graduate Students of Nutrition and Feed Science Program, Bogor Agricultural University, 16680,
(3) Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, IPB University, Bogor 16680 Center for Tropical Animal Studies (CENTRAS), IPB University, Bogor, 16153,
(*) Corresponding Author


Cassava leaves are a potential alternative feed ingredient due to their high levels of crude protein and energy. However, their utilization in poultry feed is constrained by factors such as cyanic acid, fiber content, and nutrient digestibility. This study aimed to investigate the impact of including cassava leaf meal (CLM) as a rice bran substitute and enzyme supplementation on lymphoid organ development and metabolizable energy parameters in broiler chickens. A 2x3 completely randomized factorial design was conducted using 48 Cobb-strain broilers unsexing at 35 days old. The treatments included different levels of CLM and enzyme (NSP and protease) supplementation at a dose of 250 g/ton of feed. The treatments consisted of R0E0: 0% CLM without enzyme, R0E1: 0% CLM with enzyme, R1E0: 1.5% CLM without enzyme, R1E1: 1.5% CLM with enzyme, R2E0: 3% CLM without enzyme, and R2E1: 3% CLM with enzyme. The variables assessed were lymphoid organ development (thymus, bursa Fabricius, and spleen) and metabolizable energy parameters (Apparent Metabolizable Energy (AME), True Metabolizable Energy (TME), Apparent Metabolizable Energy Corrected to Nitrogen (AMEn), and True Metabolizable Energy Corrected to Nitrogen (TMEn)). The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc tests conducted for significant differences. Results indicated no interaction between CLM and enzymes in lymphoid organ development and energy metabolizable. The inclusion of CLM led to a reduction in AME and TME (p<0.05). However, enzyme supplementation significantly increased the relative weight of lymphoid organs (thymus, bursa Fabricius, spleen) and metabolizable energy parameters (AME, TME, AMEn, and TMEn) (p<0.05). Importantly, the inclusion of CLM up to a level of 3.0% did not negatively impact the health of broiler chickens. Furthermore, the addition of enzymes effectively mitigated the negative effects associated with CLM inclusion in the feed, suggesting their potential as a strategy to improve feed utilization in broiler production systems.


Bursa fabricius, metabolizable; local feed; protein source; spleen; thymus

Full Text:

PDF. Muh. Ridla


Ani, A. O., O. D. Omeje, and L. C. Ugwuwowo. 2012. Effect of raw Bambara nut (Voandzeia subterranea) and apparent nutrition retention in broiler chicken. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 11: 11991-11997. Https:// 5897/AJB-11-4106.

AOAC. 2005. Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemist Inc. Maryland.

Attia, Y. A., H. Al-Khalaifah, H. S. Abd El-Hamid, M. A. Al-Harthi, and A. A. El-shafey. 2020. Effect of different levels of multienzymes on immune response, blood hematology and biochemistry, antioxidants status and organs histology of broiler chicks fed standard and low-density diets. Front. Vet. Sci. 6: 510. Https:// fvets.2019.00510.

BPS. 2015. Data sensus, produksi ubi kayu menurut provinsi (ton), 1993-2015. Badan Pusat Statistik. Retrieved March 14, 2023. Https://

BSN. 2015. Pakan Ayam Ras Pedaging (Broiler). SNI 8173.1-3. Badan Standarisasi Nasional, Jakarta.

Cho, H. M., J. S. Hong, Y. B. Kim, S. R. Nawarathne, I. Choi, Y. J. Yi, D. Wu, H. Lee, S. E. Han, K. T. Nam, E. I. Seoun, and J. M. Heo. 2020. Responses in growth performance and nutrient digestibility to a multi-protease supplementation in amino acid-deficient broiler diets. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. 62: 840-853. Https:// 5187/jast.2020.62.6.840.

Cowieson, A. J., H. Lu, K. M. Ajuwon, I. Knap, and O. Adeola. 2016. Interactive effects of dietary protein source and exogenous protease on growth performance, immune competence and jejunal health of broiler chickens. Anim. Prod. Sci. 57: 252–261. Https://

Ding, X. M., D. D. Li, R. Li, J. P. Wang, Q. F. Zeng, S. P. Bai, Z. W. Su, and K. Y. Zhang. 2016. Effects of dietary crude protein levels and exogenous protease on performance, nutrient digestibility, trypsin activity and intestinal morphology in broilers. Livest. Sci. 193: 26–3. Https:// j.livsci.2016.09.002.

Erdaw, M. M., R. A. Perez-Maldonado, and P. A. Iji. 2019. Protease and phytase supplementation of broiler diets in which soybean meal is partially or completely replaced by raw full-fat soybean. S. Afr. J. of Anim. Sci. 49:455-467. Https:// 4314/sajas.v49i3.6.

Fatmaningsih R, R. Riyanti, and K. Nova. 2016. Performa ayam pedaging pada sistem brooding konvensional dan thermos. JIPT. 4: 222-229. jipt.v4i3.p%25p.

Fransisca, T., J. S. Mandey, Y. H. S. Kowel, and M. N. Regar. 2017. Nilai retensi nitrogen dan energi metabolis broiler yang diberi ransum tepung limbah sawi putih. Zootec. 37: 41-49. Https:// 2017.14114.

Ghazi, S., J. A. Rooke, H. Galbraith, and M. R. Bedford. 2002. The potential for the improvement of the nutritive value of soya-bean meal by different proteases in broiler chicks and broiler cockerels. British Poult. Sci. 43: 70–77. Https:// 00071660120109935.

Hermanto, F. 2018. Pengaruh lama proses fermentasi terhadap kadar asam sianida (HCN) dan kadar protein pada kulit dan daun singkong. J. Riset Teknol. Industri. 2: 169-180. Https:// v12i2.4239.

IBM Corp. 2009. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows (Version 18.0) [Software]. IBM Corp.

Junior, E. N., R. C. Chistea, and R. S. Pena. 2019. Oven drying and hot water cooking processes decrease HCN contents of cassava leaves. Food Res. Int. 119: 517-523. Https:// 2019.01.029.

Kalmendal, R. and R. Tauson. 2012. Effects of a xylanase and protease, individually or in combination, and an ionophore coccidiostat on performance, nutrient utilization, and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens fed a wheat-soybean meal-based diet. Poultry Sci. 91: 1387-1393. Https:// 3382/ps.2011-02064.

Kusnadi, E. 2009. Perubahan malonaldehida hati, bobot relatif bursa fabrisius dan rasio heterofil/limfosit ayam broiler yang diberi cekaman panas. Media Peternakan. 32:81-87. Https:// mediapeternakan/article/view/1142.

Lema-Pérez, L. 2021. Main Organs Involved in Glucose Metabolism. IntechOpen. Https:// 10.5772/intechopen.94585

Lestari, R., A. Darmawan, and I. Wijayanti. 2020. Suplementasi mineral Cu dan Zn dalam pakan terhadap organ dalam dan lemak abdomen ayam broiler. JINTP. 18:74-80. Https://

Madalla, N., N. Agbo, and K. Jauncey. 2016. Evaluation of ground-sundried cassava leaf meal as protein source for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L) juvenile's diet. J. Agric. Veter. Sci. 15: 1-12. Https://www.ajol. info/index.php/tjags/article/view/164863

Montanhini, N. R., M. L. Ceccantini, and J. I. M. Fernandes. 2013. Immune response of broilers fed conventional and alternative diets containing multi-enzyme complex. Brazilian J. Poult. Sci. 15: 169-286. Https:// 1590/S1516-635X2013000300009.

Morgan, N. K. and M. Choct. 2016. Cassava: nutrient composition and nutritive value in poultry diets. Anim. Nutr. 2: 253-261. Https://

Nova, K. 2008. Pengaruh perbedaan persentase pemberian ransum antara siang dan malam hari terhadap performans broiler strain CP 707. Anim. Prod. 10:117-121.

Oluwafemi, R. A. and G. Omaku. 2017. Nutritional evaluation of cassava leaf meal-based diets on broiler starter chicks performance. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 2: 42-45. Https://

Ridla, M., A. Imran, A. Jayanegara, W. Hermana, and A. Tarman. 2019. Influence of Hemicell® addition on diets containing different levels of crude fiber on performance of laying hens. Buletin Peternakan 43: 179-183. Https:// v43i3.44618.

Romero, L. F., C. M. Parsons, P. L. Utterback, P. W. Plumsteada, and V. Ravindran. 2013. Comparative effects of dietary carbohydrases without or with protease on the ileal digestibility of energy and amino acids and AMEn in young broilers. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 181: 35–44. Https:// 1016/j.anifeedsci.2013.02.001.

Salu, B. and B. H. Paembonan. 2010. Pengaruh pemberian tepung daun ubi kayu (Manihot utilissima) terhadap performans ayam broiler. AgroSaint. 1: 36–42. Https:// 10.47178/agro.v1i2.349.

Santos, B. R. S., E. F. R. Silva, L. A. C. Minho, G. C. Brandao, A. M. P. Santos, W. P. C. Santos, M. V. L. Silva, and W. N. L. Santos. 2019. Evaluation of the nutritional composition in effect of processing cassava leaves (Manihot esculenta) using multivariate analysis techniques. Microchem. J. 152: 104271. Https:// microc.2019.104271.

Saraswati, U. Atmomarsono, and S. Kismiati. 2017. Pengaruh sumber protein berbeda terhadap laju alir pakan, kecernaan protein dan retensi nitrogen ayam lokal persilangan. J. Sains Peternakan Indonesia. 12: 372-378. Https://

Sibbald, I. R. and M. D. Wolynetz. 1985. Relationship between estimated of bioavailable energy made with adult cockerels and chicks: effects of feed intake and nitrogen retention. Poult. Sci. 64: 127-138. Https://

Simon, O. 1998. The mode of action of NSP hydrolysing enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 7: 115-123. Https://

Sturkie, P. D. 2000. Avian Physiology. 4th Edn. Springer–Verlag. New York.

Tillman, A. D., H. Hartadi, S. Reksohadiprodjo, S. Prawirokusumo, and S. Lebdosoekojo. 1984. Ilmu Makanan Ternak Dasar. Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta.

Uçak, I. and M. Afreen. 2022. Enzymes. In C. M. Galanakis (Ed.), Nutraceutical and Functional Food Components, Second Ed. pp. 537-571. Academic Press. Https://

Wibawan, I. W. T. and R. D. Soejoedono 2013. Intisari Imunologi Medis. IPB Press, Bogor.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 617 | views : 416


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Buletin Peternakan (Bulletin of Animal Science) Indexed by:

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.