An Indonesian Version of The Instrument for Measuring Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Antibiotic Among the Population in The Whole Country

  • Nurfawardani Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar
  • Herlina Rante Department of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar 90245, Indonesia
  • Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman Discipline of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
  • Dyah Aryani Perwitasari Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Bustanul Arifin Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar 90245, Indonesia
Keywords: Antibiotic, Knowledge and Attitude, Indonesia, Instrument, Validation


To develop a new instrument updated according to the needs of local Indonesian population and to assess its psychometric properties for measuring knowledge and attitudes toward antibiotics. The study was performed with forward and backward translation, an adaptation phase, and validation phase in which we distributed the instrument link via Google Forms to six major regions in Indonesia. Validity was measured using known group validity, construct validity, and Product-moment Correlation. Internal consistency among items was estimated using Cronbach Alpha. Based on the findings in the adaptation phase, additional descriptions (i.e. synonyms or examples) were added to the 6 items. In the validation phase, 1147 participants were recruited. The a priori hypothesis in the known group validity is supported. We also found three items that did not meet construct validity. Based on the results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in factor analysis, it is better to use four factors with modified domain names based on items that are incorporated in one factor. Based on the results of the validity test using the product-moment correlation for 11 items in the Attitude domain, all items were declared valid. Cronbach's alpha value in the knowledge domain was 0.791 and in the attitude domain was 0.929. Based on the psychometric analysis, the Indonesian Language Antibiotic Knowledge and Attitude Instrument is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing the level of knowledge and attitudes of the general public toward antibiotics in the Indonesian population.


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How to Cite
Nurfawardani, Rante, H., Syed Sulaiman, S. A., Perwitasari, D. A., & Arifin, B. (2024). An Indonesian Version of The Instrument for Measuring Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Antibiotic Among the Population in The Whole Country. Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy, 35(2), 363–374.
Research Article