Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy 2024-06-20T08:55:54+07:00 Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada Open Journal Systems <p>Thank you for visiting the Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy (ISSN-e: 2338-9486, ISSN-p: 2338-9427), formerly Majalah Farmasi Indonesia (ISSN: 0126-103<a href=";origin=AuthorNamesList&amp;offset=1&amp;authorSt1=Kirsch&amp;authorSt2=Lee+E.&amp;resultsKey=AUTH_1530392577">7). The journal has been established in 1972, and online publication was begun in 2008. Since 2012, the journal has been published in English by Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Yogyakart</a>a, Indonesia, in collaboration with Ikatan Apoteker Indonesia (IAI) or the Indonesian Pharmacist Association and since then we only receive manuscripts in English. The Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy is accredited by the Directorate General of Higher Education (DGHE) DIKTI of Indonesia with no. 30/E/KPT/2018.</p> Advances in Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Collagen in Cutaneous Wound Healing 2024-06-20T08:54:40+07:00 Clarissa Nadya Santoso K. Ariex Widyantara Nyoman Bayu Wisnu Kencana Flavia Domitila Erika Setyajati Agustina Setiawati <p>Wound healing treatment is a challenging strategy in skin drug delivery due to its complexities. During wound healing stages, fibroblast deposit extracellular matrix components, which majority is collagen. Fibrillar collagen, particularly collagen I, is the predominant skin collagen during the healing process. Collagen analysis is a crucial process in wound healing study since it indicates impairment process of collagen production such as scar formation which is aesthetically unwanted. Therefore, recent studies developed quantitative and qualitative evaluation of collagen fiber based on histological staining. Thus, a comprehensive discussion of those studies to provide an insight for pharmacists, dermatologists, and skin researchers to designate a precise assessment in wound healing process.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>skin, wound, collagen, assessment</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Formulation and Evaluation of Luliconazole nanosponge gel using Experimental design 2024-06-20T08:55:26+07:00 Narender Malothu Sadhana Noothi Anka Rao Areti Vishnu Pulavarthy <p>Different approaches are being in the practice for the topical application of antifungal drugs, although in a few cases, they have been found less efficient because of their poor cutaneous availability and permeability. Luliconazole (LUL) is one of the antifungal medications that is being used for the treatment of various superficial infections. The poor permeability of LUL is regarded to be a factor for its reduced efficacy. Hence, the current study aimed to develop a nanosponge hydrogel that would improve dermal availability and permeability. A set of nanosponge formulations (L1-L18) were designed with the help of central composite design (Design Expert 13, state ease Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA). L1-L18 was prepared by using the emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The nanosponges were characterized for drug-excipient compatibility (FTIR, P-XRD, and DSC), and particle size, polydispersibility index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (EE), and <em>in vitro</em> drug release; further optimized. The optimized nanosponge formulation (L18) was taken to produce six hydrogels (LF1-LF6) of LUL by varied proportions of the gelling agent. In this process, initially, the gel was constituted with Carbopol 934/ sodium CMC/HPMC. Later, attained hydrogel texture was evaluated for its viscosity, swelling, and membrane permeability, followed by <em>in vitro</em> drug release, and antifungal efficacy study. The nanosponge formulations (L1-L17) had an average particle size of 109±0.45 to 386±0.34 nm, entrapment efficiency of 35.45±0.46- 89.65±0.37 % with 84.67±0.54 -99.65±0.48 % of drug release for 8 h. The formulation L18 was predicted with better responses in particle size, &nbsp;EE, and drug release i.e., 378±0.25 nm,&nbsp; 84.65±0.45%, and of 96.18±0.54%, respectively for 8 h. Out of six formulated nanosponge gels (LF1-LF6), &nbsp;LF2 showed an optimal viscosity (25.69 ±0.45 pa.S), pH (6.87±0.56) and % drug release (80.65 ±0.64%) in 8 h. Drug release was governed by non-fickian diffusion mechanisms and zero-order. Developed nanosponge hydrogel was found as stable and had a high rate of permeation with better retention which can be effective enough in topical applications.</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Cytotoxicity Screening of Endophytic Fungi from Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl) Collected in Yogyakarta District 2024-06-20T08:55:30+07:00 Ikra Agustina Caterina Siskadewi Lay Puji Astuti Triana Hertiani <p>Cancer is a disease that is a global problem with a high prevalence and mortality rate. Indonesia has biodiversity with enormous potential as a source of medicinal ingredients. <em>Phaleria macrocarpa</em> (Scheff) Boerl) It is known to contain active metabolites, potentially an anticancer. Some endophytes are reported to be able to produce secondary metabolites similar to their parent plants. This study aimed to obtain endophytic fungi from <em>P. macrocarpa capable</em> of producing compounds with anticancer potential. Endophytes producing anticancer compounds were explored by screening endophytic fungi producing secondary metabolites from parts of the plant <em>P. </em><em>m</em><em>acrocarpa</em> collected in the Yogyakarta area. The anticancer bioassay (MTT assay) was performed in vitro using cancer cells T47D, MCF7, HeLa, and normal Vero cells. Potential extracts were traced for their mechanism of cell cycle modulation and apoptosis using Flowcytometry. First, fungal identification was carried out on fungi producing potential cytotoxic extracts. Then the compound content was analyzed using LC-HRMS. The results from the six extracts obtained from fruit, leaf, and stem parts showed that the endophytic extract from the leaves (code PC-L2) had the best cytotoxicity compared to other endophytes and showed the best result on MCF-7 cells with an IC<sub>50 </sub>value of 110.66 µg/mL. The producing PC-L2 extract fungi are closely associated with <em>Clonostachys wenpingii</em> strain DUCC5606. This extract induced apoptosis but not through the mechanism of cell cycle modulation.</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Effects of Quercetin Fraction from Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract on Oxidative Markers and Histological Profile of Carotid and Coronary Arteries: An Experimental Animal Study 2024-06-20T08:54:55+07:00 Subandi Subandi Suroto Suroto Bambang Purwanto Brian Wasita Soetrisno Soetrisno <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: Stroke and coronary disease are mainly caused by atherosclerosis. Quercetin in <em>Moringa oleifera </em>leaf extract may protect against oxidative stress. This study aimed to determine the role of quercetin in improving dyslipidemia and inhibiting atherosclerosis onset using laboratory and histological examinations. <strong>Methods</strong>: This experimental laboratory study used a double-blind randomized sampling technique and a pre- and post-test control group design. Experimental animals were divided into the control and treatment groups that received quercetin at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight and a high-fat diet for 10 weeks from January to March 2023. <strong>Results:</strong> The Friedman's test of the effect of quercetin administration on malondialdehyde (MDA), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), C-reactive proteins (CRP), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels revealed significant differences between the pre- and post-test. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test for the effect of quercetin administration on MDA levels revealed a significant difference in MDA levels after quercetin administration. Paired sample statistics revealed an average decrease in ICAM and CRP levels and an increase in LDL levels after quercetin administration. Cramer's V value demonstrated a strong relationship between quercetin administration and the intensity of the carotid and coronary arteries. A one-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences in the average sizes of the coronary and carotid arteries after quercetin administration. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The quercetin fraction of <em>M. </em><em>oleifera</em> leaves has a satisfactory therapeutic effect in an atherosclerotic rat model.</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Apium graveolens Herbs Ethanolic-Extract Improve Acetic Acid–Induced Colitis Condition in Rats 2024-06-20T08:55:34+07:00 Muhammad Novrizal Abdi Sahid Ardian Dewangga Chandra Saputra Andayana Puspitasari Gani <p>Colitis is a growing gastrointestinal inflammation condition that affect individual all around the globe. No specific treatment for colitis condition is available at the moment and this disease can develop into colorectal cancer. Phytochemical in <em>Apium graveolens</em> (AG) are potential as anti-inflammation and antioxidant. This study aimed to investigate the potency of AG ethanolic-extract (EES) in improving acetic acid (AA) – induced colitis in rats.</p> <p>Rats with colitis induced by acetic acid were treated with 5-ASA and several concentrations (100, 300, and 900 mg/kg) of EES. Colitis severity was determined by scoring of macroscopic condition including body weight, colon, and faeces condition. In addition, colon tissues conditions were observed with haematoxylin-eosin staining. Colon permeability is determined by measuring urine glucose level. The observation of the change in <em>Enterobacteriaceae</em> population is investigated using PCR.</p> <p><em>Apium graveolens</em> ethanolic-extract shows highest improvement of colitis condition at concentration of 900 mg/kg, based on macroscopic observation and disease severity index. At this dose, no blood existed on the faeces and the faeces consistency is solid. Group receiving lower dose of EES still shows blood existence and less solid faeces. The EES dose dependently return the population of <em>Enterobacteriaceae</em> which increase upon AA treatment. <em>Apium graveolens</em> is potential to be use as preventive or treatment for colitis.</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Enhancement of Vitamin D2 Levels in Pleurotus ostreatus Using Ultraviolet Irradiation and Assessing Its Effect on Dexamethasone-Induced Osteoporosis in Mice 2024-06-20T08:55:06+07:00 Atina Hussaana Fitria Revoni Indri Aulia Amade Dea Denny Pradana Tiara Agustina Hudan Taufiq <p>Mushrooms are a dietary source of vitamin D<sub>2</sub> because they contain ergosterol, which can be converted into vitamin D<sub>2</sub> after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. UVB irradiated mushrooms contain high active vitamin D. A regular consumption of UVB‐irradiated mushrooms has been shown to be effective to increase bone calcification and modulation of host immunity. This study aimed to enhance vitamin D<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;formation in oyster mushrooms (<em>Pleurotus ostreatus</em>) using UVB irradiation and to assess its effect on dexamethasone induced osteoporosis in mice.) &nbsp;Oyster mushrooms were UVB-irradiated with a UVB lamp at the dose of 8.01 J/cm<sup>2</sup> - 24.03 J/cm<sup>2</sup>. The vitamin D<sub>2</sub> level was measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with calciferol as the standard. The powder of vitamin D enriched oyster mushroom powder was then referred to as Oyster-D. Dexamethasone (0.01 ml/g) induced osteoporosis in BALB/c mice. The number of osteoclasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes of the femur was assessed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Serum calcium level was measured with spectrophotometry. UVB irradiation with the dose of 48.06 J/cm<sup>2</sup> resulted in a highest vitamin D<sub>2</sub> concentration, up to 11.333 µg/g. There was a significant increase in the number of osteoclasts, osteoblasts and serum calcium levels and decrease in the number of osteoclasts. The results suggest that UVB irradiation increased vitamin D<sub>2</sub> levels in white oyster mushrooms and vitamin D enriched oyster mushrooms have a potential as anti-osteoporosis.</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Optimization of Spray Drying Process of Mangiferin Extract from Mango Leaf (Mangifera indica L.) and Encapsulation for Diabetes Treatment 2024-06-20T08:55:00+07:00 Ngoc Nha Thao Nguyen Duc Linh Vo Thi Thanh Yen Le Thi Trang Dai Nguyen <p>Mangiferin is known as a major compound in mango leaves with various pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, antiviral, cancer, diabetes,... However, the poor solubility of mangiferin limits its pharmaceutical applications. Thus, this work’s major goal was to optimize the parameters of the spray-drying process in order to improve the dissolution of mangiferin in <em>Mangiferin indica</em> L. leaf extract and capsule formulation for diabetes treatment. Fourteen experiments were designed with Design Expert software and optimized process formulas with BC Pharsoft OPT software.&nbsp;Three independent variables were selected for surveying namely the ratio of mangiferin to excipients (X<sub>1</sub>), the ratio of maltodextrin in spray fluid composition (X<sub>2</sub>), and inlet air temperature (X<sub>3</sub>). The dissolution of mangiferin was shown as the percentage of this compound released within 5 minutes (Y<sub>1</sub>), 15 minutes (Y<sub>2</sub>), 30 minutes (Y<sub>3</sub>), and the percentage of hygroscopicity at 25<sup>o</sup>C (Y<sub>4</sub>). The results showed that the optimized spray drying process and formula which included the ratio of mangiferin and maltodextrin in the spray drying solution being 8.30% and 9.63%, respectively, the inlet air temperature of 156.26<sup>o</sup>C, blowing speed of 50 m<sup>3</sup>/s, pump flow of 3 mL/min possessed the dissolution of mangiferin in spray drying powder of 91.89 ± 2.43% at 30 minutes, the percentage hygroscopicity of 0.13 ± 0.13% at 25<sup>o</sup>C. The cause-effect relations and optimization of <em>Mangiferin indica</em> L leaf extract powder formulation were investigated and reported for the first time. The spray-dried powder capsule released more than 90% active ingredients in 30 minutes and showed significant hypoglycemic effects in inhibiting the α-glucosidase enzyme (IC 50 of 36.94 µg/mL equivalent to mangiferin in comparison with the commercial drug Glucobay (acarbose 176.09 µg/mL). In summary, the capsules containing the optimized formula of mangiferin spray-dried powder from <em>Mangifera indica </em>L. leaf extract have been successfully prepared and had potential antidiabetic effects in <em>in-vitro </em>settings.</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Potential Role of Centella asiatica and Sauropus androgynus in High-Fat and High-Fructose Diet-Induced-Obesity Animal Model 2024-06-20T08:55:43+07:00 Patonah Hasimun Erinna Putri Damayanti Agus Sulaeman <p>Obesity is a condition characterized by excessive fat accumulation, which leads to metabolic syndrome diseases such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, and hypertension. Efforts to reduce obesity can minimize the risk of the disease. This study aims to determine the antiobesity activity of a combination of <em>Sauropus androgynus</em> L. Merr (SA) and <em>Centella asiatica</em> L.Urban (CA) in a Swiss Webster obese mouse model. A total of 36 mice were randomly grouped into six groups, including the control group (receiving drug carriers), positive (receiving drug carriers), and standard (receiving orlistat 15.6 mg/kg BW). Three groups receiving a combination of SA &amp; CA with a dosage ratio SA: CA includes 25:25 mg/kg BW, 25:50 mg/kg BW, 50:25 mg/kg. All groups (except the normal group) induced obesity with a high-fat and high-fructose (HFHF) diet for 28 days. The drug is given orally for 28 days. Body weight, feed index, feces index, organ index, fat index, serum triglyceride levels (TG), and percent inhibition of lipid peroxidation using malondialdehyde (MDA) absorbance were all measured. The results showed that there were significant differences in parameters of body weight, feed index, feces index, organ index, fat index, serum triglyceride (TG) level, lipid-peroxidation inhibition, and histology of adipocytes between groups of animals receiving a combination extracts compared to the positive control group (p&lt;0.05). The study results concluded that the combination of SA and CA had antiobesity activity.</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Antidiabetic Activity of Averrhoa bilimbi L. Fruit Extracts and the Identification of Active Compounds Using LC-MS and In silico Methods 2024-06-20T08:55:21+07:00 Diana Widiastuti Siska Elisahbet Sinaga Siti Warnasih Yulian Syahputri Nurjanah Bella Saputri Sustiprijatno Wira Eka Putra <p>Patients with diabetes mellitus require drugs that do not cause side effects in long-term use. In this era, many people use herbal medicine to treat diabetes mellitus. One species we can use as herbal medicine is Averrhoa bilimbi L., a plant whose fruit is known as belimbing wuluh and is used because it has value as an alternative medicine. This study aims to determine the antidiabetic activity of the active fraction of <em>Averrhoa bilimbi</em> L. fruit <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in silico</em> and to obtain the active compounds contained in the fruit fraction of starfruit (<em>A. bilimbi</em> L.) using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS). Sixteen organic compounds were identified using LC-MS analysis of the <em>n-</em>hexane fraction, which had the highest IC<sub>50</sub> (7.03 μg/mL) antidiabetic activity compared to ethyl acetate (102.77 μg/mL) and n-butanol (181.65 μg/mL). In silico molecular docking, analysis was performed for all identified compounds to support the antidiabetic characteristics further. Computational predictions in this investigation revealed that two A. bilimbi fruit compounds with the greatest RT value, namely 2,3,4,5,6-pentaphenylbenzazocine (-16.0 kcal/mol) and Thraustochytroside A (-6.2 kcal/mol), exhibited higher binding affinity values than miglitol (-5.4 kcal /mol). This indicates that both compounds have promising futures as α-glucosidase inhibitor alternatives for treating diabetic disorders.</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy The Development of Plant-Based Jelly Candy for Chrysanthemum indicum L. Flower Extract and Evaluation of The Antioxidant Activity 2024-06-20T08:54:50+07:00 Qesiana Afjani Nur Baiti Zahra Salsabila Wimala Apsari Muhammad Bintang Ramadan Eugenia Karen Valencia Muhammad Novrizal Abdi Sahid Cici Darsih Marlyn D Laksitorini <p>Increasing awareness of wellness in society increased the demand for health supplements. Free radicals negatively impact vital organs resulting to the progression of neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disease. Herbal medicine such as (<em>Chrysanthemum indicum</em> L.) flowers has been reported to have strong antioxidant effects. However, the available product for Chrysanthemum is tea and capsules which is considered old fashion for many consumers. To improve consumer acceptance, Chrysanthemum can be formulated as jelly candy. However, application of the heat during jelly candy production potentially reduced its antioxidant activities. This research is aimed to develop a Chystanthemum jelly candy that can retain its antioxidant activity. Chrysanthemum flower extract is formulated into a jelly candy using plant-based gelling agents namely glucomannan and kappa carrageenan. Eight formulas were designed according to Design Expert software. Jelly candy’s physical characteristics such as organoleptic, weight uniformity, elasticity, and moisture content were assessed. An antioxidant assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method was performed on Chrysanthemum flower extract before and after jelly candy formulation. The optimum formula identified from this study has a composition of kappa carrageenan 1.327% and glucomannan 0.673%. Assessment of antioxidant activity suggested that the jelly candy can retain its antioxidant activity compared to crude extract. The optimum formula exhibited strong antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 72.91 ± 3.36 µg/mL. Through a minimal heating process, this study suggested that retaining antioxidant activity post-manufacturing process is feasible.</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy The Abundance of Bioactive Compounds in Fingerroot Essential Oil Before and After Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS) as a Potential Substitute for Synthetic Antibiotics in Livestock 2024-06-20T08:54:46+07:00 Dyanovita Al Kurnia Zuprizal Zuprizal Nanung Danar Dono Ronny Martien Chusnul Hanim <p>This research focuses on optimizing and stabilizing the essential oil of fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda), a plant native to Indonesia, using self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) technology. This essential oil possesses antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antifungal properties, making it a potential alternative to synthetic antibiotics. However, its low bioavailability and volatility limit its usage. The study involved two stages: nanoemulsion creation using a D-optimization design expert and stability analysis of bioactive compounds through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The optimized formula consisted of fingerroot essential oil, virgin coconut oil (VCO), Tween 80, and Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 400 in percentages of 12.61, 12.61, 53.65, and 21.12%, respectively. Prior to nanoemulsion, the essential oil contained 28.28% camphor and 27.13% 1,8-cineole as the highest bioactive compounds. After applying the SNEDDS technology, the camphor content decreased to 25.17%, while the 1,8-cineole content reduced to 12.14%. These findings enhance the effectiveness and stability of fingerroot essential oil, facilitating its potential application in pharmaceutical and therapeutic fields.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy The Protective Effect of Artocarpus altilis Leaf Extract on Rat Models of Diethylene Glycol-Induced Hepatotoxicity 2024-06-20T08:55:54+07:00 Jatmiko Susilo Bambang Purwanto Muchsin Doewes Dono Indarto <p>Diethylene glycol (DEG) is an alcohol derivative, which is metabolized into toxic products and is one of the main causes of liver disease. This paper aims to determine the hepatoprotective effect of AA by analyzing the levels of MDA, AST, ALT, and liver hypertrophy in the DEG-induced rat model. Twenty-five male rats were divided into 5 groups: normal, DEG (0.75% v/v), AA1 (DEG + AA 100 mg/kg BW), AA2 (DEG + AA 200 mg/kg BW), and AA3 (DEG + AA 400 mg/kg BW). Rats were given DEG for 28 days ad libitum, and AA was administered from days 14 to 28 orally. Twenty-eight days later, serum levels of MDA, ALT, AST, and liver hypertrophy were determined. DEG induction increased body weight and liver hypertrophy, levels of MDA, ALT, and AST, and decreased the AST/ALT ratio, whereas treatment with AA was shown to reverse to normal conditions which were observed for 28 days depending on the dose of AA (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05). We conclude that treatment with AA is an effective therapeutic option as a hepatoprotector in a rat model induced by DEG in a dose-dependent manner. Future challenges need to be developed as prospective complementary drugs or phytopharmaceuticals.</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Identification of The Secondary Metabolite Derived from Aaptos spp. and its Antibacterial Activity 2024-06-20T08:54:35+07:00 Setyowati Triastuti Utami Nabila Syahida Prajna Paramita Khusnul Agustina Faiqoh Nur Maulidia Muhammad Bagas Prayoga Aji Nugroho Niar Gusnaniar Eko Wahyu Putro ekowp@gmai.vom Ira Handayani Djoko Santosa Cintya Nurul Apsari Akhirta Atikana <p style="font-weight: 400;">Many novel bioactive compounds have been found to be most abundantly produced by sponges. Over the years, Indonesian sponges have played an important role in expanding our understanding of chemical diversity and biological activity. Among those sponges, the sponge genus <em>Aaptos</em> has been shown to have antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial resistance and the spread of infections in the immunocompromised population have all contributed to an increase in the appearance and severity of these infections in recent decades. Finding an alternative antimicrobial drug from marine secondary metabolites will be beneficial. The current study looks into the profile of bioactive compounds derived from the sponge <em>Aaptos</em>. The sponge was collected from Raja Ampat Island, Indonesia. This sample was extracted with ethanol and an ethyl acetate-methanol solvent. Furthermore, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used to map the secondary metabolite related to antimicrobial activity in both extracts. TLC profiling revealed potential alkaloid and terpenoid compounds from both ethanol extract and ethyl acetate-methanol. The HPLC-DAD and PCA results revealed that one of the ethanol crude extracts had a similar profile to Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, and Ampicillin. These antibacterial profiles open up new research avenues, with the ultimate goal of contributing to the development of new and effective antimicrobial drugs. This research also helps with the bioprospecting of marine sponges from Indonesian sea water.</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Enablers and Barriers to Effective Communication about Drug Information: A Qualitative Study 2024-06-20T08:55:39+07:00 Ni Putu Udayana Antari Ryo Hastama Anak Agung Vivi Noviyanti Rr. Asih Juanita <p>Patients who are involved in health communication are expected to have a better lifestyle to achieve a higher health status. Effective communication can produce a common understanding as well as an attitude improvement. Thus pharmaceutical personnel must have the ability to communicate effectively. This study aims to determine the factors that affecting the effectiveness of communication in providing drug information. The research was carried out using a semi-structured interview method. The data were analyzed using the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) method. Seven pharmacy technicians and ten pharmacists join the study. Several research themes can influence the effectiveness of communication between pharmacists and patients, including pharmacist empathy, pharmacist reliability and responsiveness, pharmacy atmosphere, patient empathy, patient physical and mental state, patient competency, and patient feedback. Several sub-themes were found which could be facilitators and barriers to effective communication. Based on the Shannon-Weaver communication model, these factors can affect the message encoding process, the information delivery channel, the message decoding process, and the feedback delivery process. Effective communication is influenced both by pharmacists as information providers and patients as recipients of drug information, the pharmacy environment can influence communication channels. Interventions to create effective communication should not only be given to pharmacists but also aimed at patients and the pharmacy environment.</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Digital Health Literacy and Its Associated Factors in General Population in Indonesia 2024-06-20T08:55:49+07:00 Muhammad Hafiz Algifari Leonardo Zachary Rizka Prita Yuliani Hardika Aditama Susi Ari Kristina <p>Digital health literacy is expected to help individuals deal with information necessary during the pandemic. The study aimed to assess digital health literacy and identify its associated factors among the general population in Indonesia. A cross-sectional online survey was used to elicit the responses of the general population (aged ≥18 years) in Indonesia from 31 March to 7 April 2022. Along with sociodemographic characteristics, the measures included 8-subscales scores on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) from the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) tools to asses Digital Health Literacy (DHL) scores. Linear regression was performed to assess the association of sociodemographic characteristics with DHL. The significance level was set at 0.05. A total of 460 respondents participated in the study. The findings show that most respondents know how to find helpful health resources on the Internet (4.13±0.56), how to use the Internet to answer health questions (3.75±0.87), what kinds of health resources are available on the Internet (3.78±0.86), and how to use the health information on the Internet to help themselves (3.67±0.78). Digital literacy is significantly associated with age (p= 0.032), education level (p=&lt;0.001), occupation (p=&lt;0.001), family income (p=&lt;0.001), experience of having chronic disease (p= 0.016), use of prescribed medicine (p= 0.021) and intensity of internet use (p=&lt;0.001). The finding indicates that DHL in the general population in Indonesia is still limited in technical ability. Improving respondents’ educational status through computer training and smartphone access, and perceived usefulness was necessary to improve digital health literacy skills in evaluating the quality of the information so that respondents feel confident in using information from the Internet to make health decisions.</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy An Indonesian Version of The Instrument for Measuring Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Antibiotic Among the Population in The Whole Country 2024-06-20T08:55:16+07:00 Nurfawardani Herlina Rante Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman Dyah Aryani Perwitasari Bustanul Arifin <p>To develop a new instrument updated according to the needs of local Indonesian population and to assess its psychometric properties for measuring knowledge and attitudes toward antibiotics. The study was performed with forward and backward translation, an adaptation phase, and validation phase in which we distributed the instrument link via Google Forms to six major regions in Indonesia. Validity was measured using known group validity, construct validity, and Product-moment Correlation. Internal consistency among items was estimated using Cronbach Alpha. Based on the findings in the adaptation phase, additional descriptions (i.e. synonyms or examples) were added to the 6 items. In the validation phase, 1147 participants were recruited. The a priori hypothesis in the known group validity is supported. We also found three items that did not meet construct validity. Based on the results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in factor analysis, it is better to use four factors with modified domain names based on items that are incorporated in one factor. Based on the results of the validity test using the product-moment correlation for 11 items in the Attitude domain, all items were declared valid. Cronbach's alpha value in the knowledge domain was 0.791 and in the attitude domain was 0.929. Based on the psychometric analysis, the Indonesian Language Antibiotic Knowledge and Attitude Instrument is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing the level of knowledge and attitudes of the general public toward antibiotics in the Indonesian population.</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy