Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy <p>Thank you for visiting the Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy (ISSN-e: 2338-9486, ISSN-p: 2338-9427), formerly Majalah Farmasi Indonesia (ISSN: 0126-103<a href=";origin=AuthorNamesList&amp;offset=1&amp;authorSt1=Kirsch&amp;authorSt2=Lee+E.&amp;resultsKey=AUTH_1530392577">7). The journal has been established in 1972, and online publication was begun in 2008. Since 2012, the journal has been published in English by Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Yogyakart</a>a, Indonesia, in collaboration with Ikatan Apoteker Indonesia (IAI) or the Indonesian Pharmacist Association and since then we only receive manuscripts in English. The Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy is accredited by the Directorate General of Higher Education (DGHE) DIKTI of Indonesia with no. 30/E/KPT/2018.</p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Abdul Rohman, M.Si., Apt.) (Puma Arfah) Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0700 OJS 60 The Implementation of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Chemometrics for the Authentication of Patin (Pangasius micronema) Fish Oil Emulsion <p style="text-align: justify;">Patin fish oil (PFO) contains a high level of polyunsaturated fatty acid that has beneficial effects on the human body, such as preventing various cardiovascular diseases, maintaining body fat composition, and aiding in human brain development. PFO can be developed as patin fish oil emulsion (PFOE) and used as a dietary supplement. Given its beneficial value, PFOE is at risk of being adulterated with -quality oils. Therefore, authentication is crucial to guarantee its quality and safety. However, authenticating PFOE is difficult because its physical appearances are masked by the emulsion component. This study aims to authenticate PFOE using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. Adulteration models were prepared using palm oil (PO) as an adulterant. All samples were analyzed using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy at 650–4000 cm<sup>-1</sup>. Chemometric techniques such as discriminant analysis (DA), partial least square regression, and principal component regression (PCR) were adopted for . Results showed that DA successfully discriminated PFOE from the adulterant. PCR within the normal spectrum of 1004–2936 cm<sup>−1</sup> produced the best values of 09846 highest R<sup>2</sup><sub>cal</sub>, 0,9073 R<sup>2</sup><sub>pred</sub>, 0,0565 lowest root mean square error of calibration, and 0,1330 root mean square error of prediction. Therefore, FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics is a rapid, accurate, and suitable method for distinguishing pure PFOE from PO adulterant.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Arif Nur Ikhsan, Abdul Rohman, Mabrurotul Mustafidah, Ronny Martien, Lily Arsanti Lestari Copyright (c) 2022 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Thu, 22 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Mangosteen Garcinia mangostana L. simplicia effect on bone structure and behaviour of Wader Fish Rasbora lateristriata (Bleeker, 1854) Embryo <p>Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is a fruit originating from the tropics which belongs to the Clusiaceae family and has become a commodity with many enthusiasts from various countries. Previous research has shown that mangosteen peel extract has tremendous potential to be developed as an ingredient in herbal medicine. Mangosteen fruit contains anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antihistamine, antidiabetic, anticancer, and so on. The results of the phytochemical screening test of 95% ethanol extract on mangosteen rind showed that it contained flavonoid compounds, saponins, alkaloids, triterpenoids, tannins and polyphenols. There is no data on the effect of exposure to mangosteen pericarip simplicia, therefore it is necessary to study the effect of exposure to mangosteen peel decoction on animal models of Wader Pari Fish (Rasbora lateristriata), with parameters such as morphology and bone structure in larvae wader fish (Rasbora lateristriata). Alcian Blue Alizarin Red staining were used to study bone structure in wader fish (Rasbora lateristriata). Data were statistical analysis with SPSS ver. 25 and the significance was determined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The morphological examination results revealed that the embryo and larvae had no morphological abnormalities. The cranial cartilage examination also revealed that the larvae had no abnormalities, the length and the angle of the cranial cartilage did not change between the control and mangosteen pericarp simplicia treatment.</p> Bambang Retnoaji, Pradnya Paramita, Luthfia Uswatun Khasanah Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Fri, 14 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0700 B-Cell Conserved Epitope Screening and In Silico Cloning of Envelope Glycoprotein from Ebola Virus (EBOV) For Vaccine Candidate Construction <p>Ebola virus (EBOV) is a type of RNA virus from the family of Filoviridae. The 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in African countries Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone has a total of 28,616 cases and 11,310 deaths. People suffering from Ebola disease reported to have symptoms such as fever, body aches, diarrhea and internal and external bleeding. Death from Ebola is mostly caused by multi-organ failure due to internal bleeding and fluid loss. Another Ebola outbreak has spiked this February 2021, suggesting low effectivity of the previous vaccines used. Zaire Ebola virus (EBOV) is known to be the species highly involved on the recent outbreak with a high mortality rate. This study is carried out to design B-cell epitope Ebola vaccine based on the conserved region of Zaire EBOV glycoprotein. Reverse vaccinology and immunoinformatic approaches are used in this study. Samples of Zaire EBOV glycoprotein sequences were retrieved from GenBank, NCBI. The 3D modelling was done by using SWISS-MODEL web server and PyMol software. Phylogenetic tree analysis was also done by using MEGA X. B-cell epitope prediction was done by BepiPred 2.0 and Emini Surface Accessibility using IEDB web server. Epitopes were selected based on its conservancy by comparing the sequences with the MEGA X alignment result. Antigenicity, allergenicity and toxicity properties of the peptides were predicted using VaxiJen 2.0, AllerTOP 2.0 and ToxinPred web servers. In silico cloning was done as the final step using pET-24a(+) expression vector. This study revealed that peptide “LEIKKPD”, “TGFGTNETEYLF”, “PYFGPAA”, “PYFGPA”, and “KLSSTNQL” are the best candidate of B-cell epitope vaccine. Phylogenetic tree and 3D modelling successfully showed the genetic and structural differences of Zaire EBOV GP originating from various countries. In silico cloning was also done using pET28a(+) expression vector to design clone vector map to be used for the next phase of vaccine development.</p> Tania Widjaja, Arif Ansori, Viol Dhea Kharisma, Irvan Faizal, Yulanda Antonius, Joko Pebrianto Trinugroh, Rasyadan Taufiq Probojati, Muhammad Hermawan Widyananda, Pavel Burkov, Pavel Scherbakov, Vera Gribkova, Natalia Nikolaeva, Natalia Vasilievich, Vikash Jakhmola, Md. Emdad Ullah, Arli Aditya Parikesit, Rahadian Zainul Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Mon, 27 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0700 An Integrated Authentication Analysis of Citrus aurantium L. Essential Oil Based on FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics with Tuning Parameters <p><em>Citrus aurantium</em> L. essential oil or orange oil (OO) became more popular in recent years due to its benefit for human health. An “economically motivated adulteration” can be potentially occurred to achieve more profit in the market. On the other hand, a cheaper oil such as coconut oil (CO) was commonly used as adulterant. The objective of this study was to perform authentication analysis of OO by FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics. Principal component analysis was applied in the exploratory data analysis at the initial stage of authentication analysis. Multivariate calibration of principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) were constructed using five types of pre-processed FTIR spectral data. The PCR model using Standard Normal Variate (SNV) spectra was selected as the best prediction model for OO (R<sub>cal</sub><sup>2 </sup>= 0.999; RMSEC = 0.193; R<sub>CV</sub><sup>2 </sup>= 0.998; RMSECV = 0.456; R<sub>val</sub><sup>2 </sup>= 0.992; RMSEP = 0.989), whereas the PLSR model using SNV spectra was selected as the best prediction model for CO (R<sub>cal</sub><sup>2 </sup>= 0.999; RMSEC = 0.174; R<sub>CV</sub><sup>2 </sup>= 0.999; RMSECV = 0.476; R<sub>val</sub><sup>2 </sup>= 0.992; RMSEP = 0.991). SNV spectra of OO, CO, and binary mixture of OO+CO were used to generate sparse partial least squares-discriminant analysis (sPLS-DA) model. Tuning parameters of component numbers, the number of variables “keepX”, and the distance of prediction was executed. The component number of three with “keepX” for component 1, 2, and 3 were 1, 5, and 1, respectively, were selected along with the maximum distance approach to construct the discriminant model. The final sPLS-DA model explained the total variances of 94% with satisfaction separatibility of 100%, 97.8%, and 100% for OO, CO, and OO+CO, respectively.</p> Florentinus Dika Octa Riswanto, Anjar Windarsih, Dina Christin Ayuning Putri, Michael Raharja Gani Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Application of Hildebrand Solubility Parameter to Identify Ethanol-Free Co-Solvent for Pediatric Formulation <p>Formulation of active pharmaceutical ingredients into liquid dosage form is frequently limited by solubility issues. Ethanol is commonly used as a cosolvent to improve the solubility of drugs. Due to the incomplete expression of ethanol metabolizing enzyme in children under 6 years, several drug authorities such as WHO, EMA, and FDA recommend avoiding the use of ethanol in pediatric formulation whenever possible. In addition to that Muslim consumers are regulated by the halal practice where excessive use of ethanol in pharmaceutical products should be avoided. Thus, it is necessary to explore an alternative co-solvent to reduce the use of ethanol in the pediatric formulation. This study is aimed to identify an alternative co-solvent to ethanol that is safe for the pediatric using Hildebrand Solubility Parameter approach.</p> <p>In this study, the solubility parameter of the model drug, MH2011, was determined using Hildebrand Solubility Parameter (HSP). The solubility parameter (δ) of MH2011 was determined using two approaches. The first method is by measuring the maximum solubility of the model drugs in the binary mixture of water and 1,4 dioxane. The second approach is by calculating solubility parameters based on Fedor’s group substitution method.</p> <p>Using binary solvent blend, the MH2011 solubility parameter was identified to be approximately 14.0 (cal/cm<sup>3 </sup>)<sup>½</sup>. This value is in agreement with the result of the second approach using Fedor’s Group substitution method which is 14. 4 (cal/cm<sup>3</sup>)<sup> ½</sup>. With this data, an alternate co-solvent to substitute ethanol was explored. The studies also suggested that propylene glycol 7% v/v may give solubility power as those of ethanol 7% (v/v). This study suggested that Hildebrand’s Solubility Parameter can be applied to identify an alternate co-solvent to ethanol. This cosolvent is important for the research area where the alcohol-free formulation is preferred such as in halal pharmaceuticals and pediatric liquid formulation.</p> Marlyn D Laksitorini, Lina Utami Suryani, Fadhil Rusdya Muhammad, Hari Purnomo Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Tue, 02 May 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Simultaneous Analysis of 12 Aphrodisiacs in Traditional Medicine using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry <p>People tend to consume traditional medicines compared to synthetic drugs due to their safety and low side effects. The high demand of traditional medicine consumption in public stimulates some traditional medicine industries illegally add medicinal chemicals into their products to elevate the therapeutic effect. In order to accelerate the monitoring program of product quality and safety, the availability of a rapid and reliable analytical method becomes a necessity. The research aims to determine the validity of the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and its application to simultaneously identify 12 aphrodisiac compounds in male sexual enhancer traditional medicine. The chromatography system used an ion modifier of 0.1% formic acid. The mass spectrometer was equipped with a triple quadrupole (TQD) as a mass analyzer in a positive mode of ESI. The analysis was conducted in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transition. Qualitative analysis was performed using retention time (Rt) of peaks in each compound, within their value of m/z quantifier and qualifier ions. Method validation was performed by evaluating the profile of selectivity, precision, matrix effect, and limit of detection (LOD). A qualitative analysis of the selectivity test was carried out by comparing the retention times between the blank sample added with the reference standards (spiked sample) and those in reference standards, with a difference of ±1minute shifts. Precision analysis on intra-day precision gives results in the range of 2.0–8.6%. The method showed that there was no matrix effect with the extraction efficiency values ranging from 86.2 to 110.9%. The LOD values for the 12 compounds were in the range of 1.6 ± 0.58 to 18.2 ± 6.14 µg/g. The method can be applied to test 49 samples of male sexual enhancer traditional medicines consisting of powder, capsules, solutions, soft capsules, and caplets dosage forms. The tested samples contained 8 (eight) types of aphrodisiac compounds. This study shows that LC-MS can be used to confirm the content of aphrodisiac compounds in traditional medicinal samples.</p> Farida Kurniawati, Masteria Yunovilsa Putra, Widiyanto Kurniawan, Abdul Rohman Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Development of Bacterial Cocktail of Strains Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus warneri, Bacillus subtilis, and Micrococcus luteus as active ingredients for Skin Care Formula <p>The microbial-based skin health care products&nbsp;that balance one's skin microbiome mimicking healthy skin&nbsp;are rapidly growing. Postbiotics&nbsp;gain more&nbsp;advantages in safety, shelf life, active peptides,&nbsp;and other active compounds such as GABA,&nbsp;which&nbsp;benefit&nbsp;human skin.&nbsp;We have isolated skin commensal bacteria,&nbsp;i.e.,&nbsp;<em>Staphylococcus</em> <em>hominis</em>&nbsp;MBF12-19J,&nbsp;<em>Staphylococcus</em> <em>warneri</em> MBF02-19J,&nbsp;<em>Micrococcus luteus</em>&nbsp;MBF05-19J and&nbsp;<em>Bacillus subtilis</em>&nbsp;MBF10-19J in our previous study. This study aimed to make a formula of bacterial cocktail (BC) of those strains, elevate the BC formula into a ferment lysate (FL), and characterize the activities and test for skin sensitivity.&nbsp;The antibacterial activity was done by conducting a competition test using&nbsp;<em>Propionibacterium acnes</em>&nbsp;as an indicator bacterium, whereas the antioxidant activity assay was carried out using the&nbsp;DPPH method. The skin sensitivity was tested using the patch test method. The&nbsp;BC was lyzed by optimizing the&nbsp;enzymatic and ultrasonication methods, whereas&nbsp;sucrose&nbsp;was added as lyoprotectant to obtain a stable powder FL. Potential activity to inhibit&nbsp;<em>P. acnes</em>&nbsp;growth was achieved by a formula of FL&nbsp;consisting of&nbsp;<em>M. luteus&nbsp;</em>MBF05-19J<em>: B. subtilis&nbsp;</em>MBF10-19J<em>: S. warneri&nbsp;</em>MBF02-19J<em>: S. hominis&nbsp;</em>MBF12-19J in a ratio 1.5:1.5:0.5:0.5 or equivalent to DNA copy number/mL 1.01E+16: 1.14E+24: 1.96E+22: 1.50E+18.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Skin sensitivity test results&nbsp;showed no sensitivity reaction, guaranteeing that&nbsp;CFS and FL are safe to use for the skin. Sucrose-FL&nbsp;at 12% sucrose formula showed higher physical stability than those without.&nbsp;However, the result of potential antioxidants showed mild and very mild activities&nbsp;compared to standard ascorbic acid.</p> Fathan Luthfi Hawari, Tesya Almadea, Karina Hananingsih, Ahmad Baikuni, Amarila Malik, Ayun Erwina Arifianti, Delly Ramadon, Conny Riana Tjampakasari Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Fri, 10 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Five flavonoids from Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) varieties <p>Alfalfa (<em>Medicago sativa</em> L., Fabaceae) is knowed as perennial herbaceous leguminous plant species that originated in southwestern Asia and used as folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The upperground part of Lucerne contain phenolic compound such as flavonoids etc., that contributes to its biological activities. The aim of this study was to determine five widely knowing flavonoids in extracts 20 alfalfa varieties herb at the Ukrainian steppe growing. We selected 50 seeds of the same size from twenty alfalfa cultivars from different countries, were cultivated under controlled areas of southern part of the Ukrainian left-bank at border of forest-steppe and steppe zones (Zaporizhzhya, Ukraine) from April to June, with 15 °C/ 07 °C (day/night), 14 h/10 h (light/dark) and 60–65% relative humidity. The content of flavonoids were found unequable in ethanol extracts. The chemical compositions and their content were assessed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography. The content of five flavonoids were different in the 20 alfalfa varieties raw materials. Umbelliferone were found high in ethanol extract of Mongolian colorful hybrid (Mongolia, 0,23 mg|g). Four sorts have not contained umbelliferone: Кisvardai (Hungary), Nizona (Cuba), Тanhuato (Mexico) and Mesopotamian (Iraq). The leader from cinaroside content was sort Commercial 2-52-75 of UK origin. Routine has been found in the highest quantities in WL 50 from USA. Ferganska 700 from Uzbekistan was leader in luteolin content and Кisvardai, Hungary was leader in average of kaempferol content (0,030 mg|g). The present article comprises the hierarchical cluster analyses from the data flavonoid assay.</p> Olena Grechana, Anatoly Serbin, Anna Rudnik, Olena Saliy Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Mon, 22 May 2023 00:00:00 +0700