Apakah Pengkayaan Lingkungan Berpengaruh terhadap Ingatan Spasial pada Tikus Jantan dan Betina?

Sri Kusrohmaniah
(Submitted 10 August 2017)
(Published 11 August 2017)


Female and male rats use different landmarks to find foods in the radial arm maze. The aim of this research was to test the effect of environmental enrichment on spatial memory of male and female rats. Twenty-two male and 22 female Wistar rats (Rattus novergicus) were allocated into eight groups. Spatial memory was measured after 60 days of environmental enrichment. It was hypothesized that rats in environmentally enriched groups had better spatial memory. The analysis was done using SPANOVA (Mixed Design ANOVA). It was found that sex had an effect on spatial memory.

Abstrak : Tikus jantan dan betina menggunakan landmark (penanda ligkungan) yang berbeda dalam menemukan makanan pada radial arm maze. Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji pengaruh pengkayaan lingkungan terhadap ingatan spasial pada tikus jantan dan betina. Duapuluh dua ekor tikus jantan dan 22 ekor tikus betina galur Wistar terbagi dalam delapan kelompok diukur ingatan spasialnya setelah mendapat pengkayaan lingkungan selama 60 hari. Hipotesis yang diajukan dalam penelitian ini bahwa kelompok yang mendapat pengkayaan lingkungan memiliki ingatan spasial lebih baik, diuji dengan menggunakan SPANOVA (ANOVA Mixed Design). Hasil analisis menunjukkan tidak ada interaksi antara pengkayaan lingkungan dan jenis kelamin terhadap ingatan spasial. Tidak ada pengaruh perlakuan terhadap ingatan spasial. Ada pengaruh jenis kelamin terhadap ingatan spasial.


Spatial memory; brain; gonad and steroid hormones; environmental enrichment; sex; rats

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.22146/jpsi.27405


Barkley, C.L., & Jacobs, L.F. 2007. Sex and species differences in spatial memory in food-storing kangaroo rats. Animal Behaviour, 73, 321-329 doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2006.07.009

Chen, H., Lin, L., Yu, L., Liu, Y., Kuo, Y. & Huang, A. (2007) Treadmill exercise enhances passive avoidance learning in rats : the role of down-regulated serotonin system in the limbic system. Neurobiology of Learing and Memory, 89, 489 - 496

Gardner, E.B., Boitano, J.J., Mancino, N. S., & D’Ami, D.P. 1975. Environmental Enrichment and Deprivation: Effects on Learning, Memory and Exploration. PhysPhysiology and Behavior, 14, 321-327

Gomez-Pinilla, F. & Vaynman, S. 2005. A “deficient environment” in prenatal life may compromise systems important for cognitive function by affecting BDNF in the hippocampus. Experimental Neurology, 192, 235-243

Harburger, L.L., Lambert, T.J., & Frick, K.M. 2007. Research report Age-dependent effects of environmental enrichment on spatial reference memory in male mice . Behavioural Brain Research, 185, 43–48

Harris, A.P., D’Eath, R.B., & Healy, S.D. 2009. Environmental enrichment enhances spatial cognition in rats by reducing thigmotaxis (wall hugging) during testing. Animal Behaviour, 77, 1459-1464

Lambert, T.J.; Fernandez, S.M.; & Frick, K.M. (2005) Different types of environmental enrichment have discrepant effects on spatial memory and synaptophysin levels in female mice. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 83, 206–216

Leggio, M.G., Mandolesi, L., Federico, F., Spirito, F., Ricci, B., Gelfo, F., & Petrosini, L. 2005. Environmental enrichment promotes improved spatial abilities and enhanced dendritic growth in the rat. Behavioural Brain Research, 163, 78–90

Me´ndez-Lo´pez, M., Me’ndez, M., Lo’pez, L., & Arias, J.L. 2009. Spatial working memory learning in young male and female rats : involvement of different limbic system regions revealed by cytochrome oxidase activity. Neuroscience Research, 65, 28-34

O’Keefe, J. & Nadel, L. 1980. The hippocampus as a cognitive map. Review by : Aryeh Routtenberg. The American Journal of Psychology, 93 (1), 177-178

Partadiredja, G. dan Bedi, K.S. 2011. Mice undernourished before, but not after, weaning perform better in motor coordination and spatial learning task than well-fed controls. Nutritional Neuroscience, 14(4), 129-137, DOI 10.1179/147683011X12611460764165

Rossi, C. & Angelucci,A., Constantin, L., Braschi, C., Mazzantini, M. 2006. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for the enhancement of hippocampal neurogenesis following environmental enrichment. Europe Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 1850-1856

Terry, W.S. 2006. Learning and Memory, Basic Principles, Processes, and Procedures. Third Edition. Boston : Pearson

Veena, J., Srikumar, B.N., Raju, T.R., Shankaranarayana, B.S., 2009. Exposure to enriched environment restores the survival and differentiation of new born cells in the hippocampus and ameliorates depressive symptoms in chronically stressed rats. Neuroscience Letters, 455, 178–182

Williams, B,M., Luo, Y., Ward, C., Redd, K., Gibson, R., Kuczaja, S.A. & McCoy, J.G. 2001. Environmental enrichment: Effects on spatial memory and hippocampal CREB immunoreactivity. Physiology Behaviour, 73 (4), 649-658

Ziegler, S.G., & Thornton, J.E. 2010. Low luteinizing hormone enhances spatial memory and has protective effects on memory loss in rats. Hormones and Behaviour, 58, 705-713


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Jurnal Psikologi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.