Nanomaterial for Adjuvants Vaccine: Practical Applications and Prospects

Vy Anh Tran(1*), Vien Vo(2), Vinh Quang Dang(3), Giang Ngoc Linh Vo(4), Ta Ngoc Don(5), Van Dat Doan(6), Van Thuan Le(7)

(1) Institute of Applied Technology and Sustainable Development, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam; Faculty of Environmental and Food Engineering, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
(2) Faculty of Natural Sciences, Quy Nhon University, 170 An Duong Vuong, Quy Nhon, Binh Dinh 55000, Vietnam
(3) Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, University of Science, 227 Nguyen Van Cu Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam; Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
(4) Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
(5) Ministry of Education and Training, Ha Noi City 570000, Vietnam
(6) The Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
(7) Center for Advanced Chemistry, Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, 03 Quang Trung, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam; Faculty of Natural Sciences, Duy Tan University, 03 Quang Trung, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam
(*) Corresponding Author


Vaccines contain adjuvants to strengthen the immune responses of the receiver against pathogen infection or malignancy. A new generation of adjuvants is being developed to give more robust antigen-specific responses, specific types of immune responses, and a high margin of safety. By changing the physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials, it is possible to make antigen-delivery systems with high bioavailability, controlled and sustained release patterns, and the ability to target and image. Nanomaterials can modulate the immune system so that cellular and humoral immune responses more closely resemble those desired. The use of nanoparticles as adjuvants is believed to significantly improve the immunological outcomes of vaccination because of the combination of their immunomodulatory and delivery effects. In this review, we discuss the recent developments in new adjuvants using nanomaterials. Based on three main vaccines, the subunit, DNA, and RNA vaccines, the possible ways that nanomaterials change the immune responses caused by vaccines, such as a charge on the surface or a change to the surface, and how they affect the immunological results have been studied. This study aims to provide succinct information on the use of nanomaterials for COVID-19 vaccines and possible new applications.


nanomaterials; adjuvants vaccine; subunit vaccine; DNA vaccine; RNA vaccine; Covid-19 vaccine

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