Cellulose Ethers from Banana (Musa balbisiana Colla) Blossom Cellulose: Synthesis and Multivariate Optimization


Safira Zidna Salama(1), Maulidan Firdaus(2), Venty Suryanti(3*)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Cellulose ethers are biocompatible polymers which have attracted considerable attention for various applications due to their physical and mechanical properties. The present work aims to find the optimum condition for synthesizing cellulose ethers from banana blossom cellulose (BBC) such as methylcellulose (MC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC). The ultrasonication-assisted method as an energy source is used to shorten the synthesis time at room temperature and obtain high yields. The influences of various parameters (NaOH concentration, etherification agents, and sonication time) were analyzed using a multivariate statistical modeling response surface methodology (RSM). The materials were characterized by FTIR, SEM, and TGA. The cellulose ethers obtained have the potential as food additives with DS values of 2.0, 0.7, and 0.86, respectively. MC was synthesized optimally with a yield of 96.52% using a composition of cellulose (0.4 g), 50% (w/v) NaOH (10 mL) and dichloromethane (6 mL). CMC was synthesized optimally with a yield of 98.26% using a composition of cellulose (0.4 g), 30% (w/v) NaOH (2 mL) and monochloroacetic acid (1 g). HPC was synthesized optimally with a yield of 97.51% using a composition of cellulose (0.4 g), 10% (w/v) NaOH (2 mL) and propylene oxide (1.5 mL).


banana blossom; cellulose; etherification; response surface methodology

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Suryanti, V., Kusumaningsih, T., Safriyani, D., and Cahyani, I.S., 2023, Synthesis and characterization of cellulose ethers from screw pine (Pandanus tectorius) leaves cellulose as food additives, Int. J. Technol., 14 (3), 659–668.

[2] Buchanan, C., Guzman-Morales, E., and Wang, B., 2021, Regioselectively substituted cellulose benzoate propionates for compensation film in optical displays, Carbohydr. Polym., 252, 117146.

[3] Pontoh, R., Rarisavitri, V.E., Yang, C.C., Putra, M.F., and Anugrah, D.S.B., 2022, Density functional theory study of intermolecular interactions between amylum and cellulose, Indones. J. Chem., 22 (1), 253–262.

[4] Nasatto, P.L., Pignon, F., Silveira, J.L.M., Duarte, M.E.R., Noseda, M.D., and Rinaudo, M., 2015, Methylcellulose, a cellulose derivative with original physical properties and extended applications, Polymers, 7 (5), 777–803.

[5] Coughlin, M.L., Liberman, L., Ertem, S.P., Edmund, J., Bates, F.S., and Lodge, T.P., 2021, Methyl cellulose solutions and gels: Fibril formation and gelation properties, Prog. Polym. Sci., 112, 101324.

[6] EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS), Younes, M., Aggett, P., Aguilar, F., Crebelli, R., Di Domenico, A., Dusemund, B., Filipič, M., Jose Frutos, M., Galtier, P., Gott, D., Gundert-Remy, U., Georg Kuhnle, G., Lambré, C., Leblanc, J.C., Lillegaard, I.T., Moldeus, P., Mortensen, A., Oskarsson, A., Stankovic, I., Tobback, P., Waalkens-Berendsen, I., Wright, M., Tard, A., Tasiopoulou, S., and Woutersen, R.A., 2018, Re-evaluation of celluloses E 460(i), E 460(ii), E 461, E 462, E 463, E 464, E 465, E 466, E 468 and E 469 as food additives, EFSA J., 16 (1), e05047.

[7] Ria, S.A., Ferdous, T., Yasin Arafat, K.M., and Jahan, M.S., 2022, Pulp refining in improving degree of substitution of methylcellulose preparation from jute pulp, Biomass Convers. Biorefin., 12 (7), 2431–2439.

[8] Singh, R.K., 2013, Methylcellulose synthesis from corn cobs, J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 114 (2), 809–819.

[9] Wahyuningtyas, A., Setyoko, A., Anggrahini, S., and Marseno, D.W., 2021, Optimasi sintesis methyl cellulose (MC) dari biji salak (Salacca edulis Reinw) pondoh super, J. Sci. Appl. Technol., 5 (1), 78–84.

[10] Rahman, M.S., Mondal, M.I.H., Yeasmin, M.S., Abu Sayeed, M., Hossain, M.A., and Ahmed, M.B., 2020, Conversion of lignocellulosic corn agro-waste into cellulose derivative and its potential application as pharmaceutical excipient, Processes, 8 (6), 711.

[11] Samsi, M.S., Kamari, A., Din, S.M., and Lazar, G., 2019, Synthesis, characterization and application of gelatin–carboxymethyl cellulose blend films for preservation of cherry tomatoes and grapes, J. Food Sci. Technol., 56 (6), 3099–3108.

[12] Klunklin, W., Jantanasakulwong, K., Phimolsiripol, Y., Leksawasdi, N., Seesuriyachan, P., Chaiyaso, T., Insomphun, C., Phongthai, S., Jantrawut, P., Sommano, S.R., Punyodom, W., Reungsang, A., Ngo, T.M., and Rachtanapun, P., 2020, Synthesis, characterization, and application of carboxymethyl cellulose from asparagus stalk end, Polymers, 13 (1), 81.

[13] Abou-Zeid, R.E., El-Wakil, N.A., Elgendy, A., Fahmy, Y., and Dufresne, A., 2021, Liquid crystalline properties of hydroxypropyl cellulose prepared from dissolved Egyptian bagasse pulp, Cellul. Chem. Technol., 55 (1-2), 13–22.

[14] Marseno, D.W., Haryanti, P., Adiseno, B., and Haryadi, H., 2014, Synthesis and characterization of hydroxypropylcellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunches (Elaeis guineensis Jacq), Indones. Food Nutr. Prog., 13 (1), 24–30.

[15] Joshi, G., Rana, V., Naithani, S., Varshney, V.K., Sharma, A., and Rawat, J.S., 2019, Chemical modification of waste paper: An optimization towards hydroxypropyl cellulose synthesis, Carbohydr. Polym., 223, 115082.

[16] FAO, 2022, Banana Market Review - Preliminary Results 2022, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

[17] Prithivirajan, R., Narayanasamy, P., Al-Dhabi, N.A., Balasundar, P., Shyam Kumar, R., Ponmurugan, K., Ramkumar, T., and Senthil, S., 2020, Characterization of Musa paradisiaca L. Cellulosic natural fibers from agro-discarded blossom petal waste, J. Nat. Fibers, 17 (11), 1640–1653.

[18] Xie, J., Hse, C.Y., De Hoop, C.F., Hu, T., Qi, J., and Shupe, T.F., 2016, Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers from bamboo using microwave liquefaction combined with chemical treatment and ultrasonication, Carbohydr. Polym., 151, 725–734.

[19] Firdaus, M., Handayani, N., and Marfu’ah, L.T., 2016, Reduction of aldehydes using sodium borohydride under ultrasonic irradiation, Indones. J. Chem., 16 (2), 229–232.

[20] Wongvitvichot, W., Pithakratanayothin, S., Wongkasemjit, S., and Chaisuwan, T., 2021, Fast and practical synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose from office paper waste by ultrasonic-assisted technique at ambient temperature, Polym. Degrad. Stab., 184, 109473.

[21] Yusof, N.A.A., Hadzir, N.M., Ashari, S.E., Hanapi, N.S.M., and Hamid, R.D., 2019, Optimization of enzymatic synthesis of betulinic acid amide in organic solvent by response surface methodology (RSM), Indones. J. Chem., 19 (4), 849–857.

[22] Alabi, F.M., Lajide, L., Ajayi, O.O., Adebayo, A.O., Emmanuel, S., and Fadeyi, A.E., 2020, Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulose from Musa paradisiaca and Tithonia diversifolia, Afr. J. Pure Appl. Chem., 14 (1), 9–23.

[23] Feng, Z., Yang, D., Guo, J., Bo, Y., Zhao, L., and An, M., 2023, Optimization of natural deep eutectic solvents extraction of flavonoids from Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge by response surface methodology, Sustainable Chem. Pharm., 31, 100904.

[24] Pinheiro, D.R., Neves, R.F., and Paz, S.P.A., 2021, A sequential Box-Behnken Design (BBD) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to optimize SAPO-34 synthesis from kaolin waste, Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 323, 111250.

[25] Gomes, L.R., Simões, C.D., and Silva, C, 2020, Demystifying thickener classes food additives though molecular gastronomy, Int. J. Gastron. Food Sci., 22, 100262.

[26] Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), 2006, Monograph 1, Combined Compendium of Food Additive Specifications, https://www.fao.org/food/food-safety-quality/scientific-advice/jecfa/jecfa-additives/detail/en/c/134/, accessed on 28 May 2023.

[27] Casaburi, A., Montoya Rojo, Ú., Cerrutti, P., Vázquez, A., and Foresti, M.L., 2018, Carboxymethyl cellulose with tailored degree of substitution obtained from bacterial cellulose, Food Hydrocolloids, 75, 147–156.

[28] Rashid, S., and Dutta, H., 2022, Physicochemical characterization of carboxymethyl cellulose from differently sized rice husks and application as cake additive, LWT, 154, 112630.

[29] Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), 2011, Monograph 11, Combined Compendium of Food Additive Specifications, https://www.fao.org/food/food-safety-quality/scientific-advice/jecfa/jecfa-additives/detail/en/c/198/, accessed on 28 May 2023.

[30] Biswas, A., Kim, S., Selling, G.W., and Cheng, H.N., 2014, Conversion of agricultural residues to carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylcellulose acetate, Ind. Crops Prod., 60, 259–265.

[31] Chen, C., Huang, Y., Zhu, C., Nie, Y., Yang, J., and Sun, D., 2014, Synthesis and characterization of hydroxypropyl cellulose from bacterial cellulose, Chin. J. Polym. Sci., 32 (4), 439–448.

[32] Abdel-Halim, E.S., and Al-Deyab, S.S., 2011, Utilization of hydroxypropyl cellulose for green and efficient synthesis of silver nanoparticles, Carbohydr. Polym., 86 (4), 1615–1622.

[33] Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), 2006, Monograph 1, Combined Compendium of Food Additive Specifications, https://www.fao.org/food/food-safety-quality/scientific-advice/jecfa/jecfa-additives/detail/en/c/460/, accessed on 28 May 2023.

[34] Candido, R.G., and Gonçalves, A.R., 2019, Evaluation of two different applications for cellulose isolated from sugarcane bagasse in a biorefinery concept, Ind. Crops Prod., 142, 111616.

[35] Bano, S., and Negi, Y.S., 2017, Studies on cellulose nanocrystals isolated from groundnut shells, Carbohydr. Polym., 157, 1041–1049.

[36] Liu, Z., Li, X., Xie, W., and Deng, H., 2017, Extraction, isolation and characterization of nanocrystalline cellulose from industrial kelp (Laminaria japonica) waste, Carbohydr. Polym., 173, 353–359.

[37] Oliveira, R.L., Vieira, J.G., Barud, H.S., Assunção, R.M.N., Filho, G.R., Ribeiro, S.J.L., and Messadeqq, Y., 2015, Synthesis and characterization of methylcellulose produced from bacterial cellulose under heterogeneous condition, J. Braz. Chem. Soc., 26 (9), 1861–1870.

[38] Hasanin, M., and Labeeb, A.M., 2021, Dielectric properties of nicotinic acid/methyl cellulose composite via ‘green’ method for anti-static charge applications, Mater. Sci. Eng., B, 263, 114797.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.86769

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 117 | views : 40

Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.