Determination of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Household Dusts in Irbid and Mafraq Cities, Jordan

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.85062

Asmaa Ali Al-Serhan(1), "Ayat Allah" Al-Massaedh(2*), Idrees Faleh Al-Momani(3)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Al al-Bayt University, Mafraq 25113, Jordan
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Al al-Bayt University, Mafraq 25113, Jordan
(3) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21163, Jordan
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The objective of this study was to measure the concentrations of selected heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Cr, Co, Ni, and Mn) in house dust collected during the summer and winter seasons from Mafraq and Irbid cities, Jordan. The average concentrations (±SD) of the metals were found to be 66.8 (±22.4), 10.8 (±3.75), 366 (±108), 81.6 (±43.9), 7586 (±4304), and 37.2 (±15.4) mg/kg, for Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Cr, respectively, in the summer season. The average concentrations (±SD) of the metals were found to be 92.8 (±65.5), 5.10 (±4.75), 305 (±160), 144 (±163), 5385 (±3812), 27.1 (±15.1), 18.7 (±3.70), 42.2 (±15.1), and 139 (±69.2) mg/kg, for Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Cr, Co, Ni, and Mn, respectively, in the winter season. The influence of different heating systems on the concertation of heavy metal was examined by comparing the results obtained in both summer and winter seasons. The concentrations of the metals in this study were compared with those reported by other researchers around the world. This study shows that the significant accumulation of heavy metals in house dust should be considered a serious risk to the health of residents in Mafraq and Irbid cities.

Keywords


house dust; pollution; Irbid; Mafraq; Jordan



References

[1] Kalimeri, K.K., Saraga, D.E., Lazaridis, V.D., Legkas, N.A., Missia, D.A., Tolis, E.I., and Bartzis, J.G., 2016, Indoor air quality investigation of the school environment and estimated health risks: Two-season measurements in primary schools in Kozani, Greece, Atmos. Pollut. Res., 7 (6), 1128–1142.

[2] Sabzevari, E., and Sobhanardakani, S., 2018, Analysis of selected heavy metals in indoor dust collected from city of Khorramabad, Iran: A case study, Jundishapur J. Health Sci., 10 (3), e67382.

[3] Naimabadi, A., Gholami, A., and Ramezani, A.M., 2021, Determination of heavy metals and health risk assessment in indoor dust from different functional areas in Neyshabur, Iran, Indoor Built Environ., 30 (10), 1781–1795.

[4] Peng, Z., Deng, W., and Tenorio, R., 2017, Investigation of indoor air quality and the identification of influential factors at primary schools in the North of China, Sustainability, 9 (7), 1180.

[5] Rehman, K., Fatima, F., Waheed, I., and Akash, M.S.H., 2018, Prevalence of exposure of heavy metals and their impact on health consequences, J. Cell. Biochem., 119 (1), 157–184.

[6] Yadav, I.C., Devi, N.L., Singh, V.K., Li, J., and Zhang, G., 2019, Spatial distribution, source analysis, and health risk assessment of heavy metals contamination in house dust and surface soil from four major cities of Nepal, Chemosphere, 218, 1100–1113.

[7] Bamidele, O., Boisa, N., and Obunwo, C.C., 2020, Determination and risk assessment of heavy metals concentrations collected from indoor houses at Lagos State of Nigeria, Int. J. Adv. Sci. Res. Eng., 6 (3), 77–94.

[8] Alghamdi, A.G., El-Saeid, M.H., Alzahrani, A.J., and Ibrahim, H.M., 2022, Heavy metal pollution and associated health risk assessment of urban dust in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, PLoS One,17 (1), e0261957.

[9] Kim, K.H., Kabir, E., and Kabir, S., 2015, A review on the human health impact of airborne particulate matter, Environ. Int., 74, 136–143.

[10] Jain, S., Sharma, S.K., Vijayan, N., and Mandal, T.K., 2021, Investigating the seasonal variability in source contribution to PM2.5 and PM10 using different receptor models during 2013-2016 in Delhi, India, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 28 (4), 4660–4675.

[11] Tan, S.Y., Praveena, S.M., Abidin, E.Z., and Cheema, M.S., 2016, A review of heavy metals in indoor dust and its human health-risk implications, Rev. Environ. Health, 31 (4), 447–456.

[12] Lin, Y., Fang, F., Wang, F., and Xu, M., 2015, Pollution distribution and health risk assessment of heavy metals in indoor dust in Anhui rural, China, Environ. Monit. Assess., 187 (9), 565.

[13] Shi, T., and Wang, Y., 2021, Heavy metals in indoor dust: Spatial distribution, influencing factors, and potential health risks, Sci. Total Environ., 755, 142367.

[14] Cao, S., Chen, X., Zhang, L., Xing, X., Wen, D., Wang, B., Qin, N., Wei, F., and Duan, X., 2020, Quantificational exposure, sources, and health risks posed by heavy metals in indoor and outdoor household dust in a typical smelting area in China, Indoor Air, 30 (5), 872–884.

[15] Theodosi, C., Tsagkaraki, M., Zarmpas, P., Grivas, G., Liakakou, E., Paraskevopoulou, D., Lianou, M., Gerasopoulos, E., and Mihalopoulos, N., 2018, Multi-year chemical composition of the fine-aerosol fraction in Athens, Greece, with emphasis on the contribution of residential heating in wintertime, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18 (19), 14371–14391.

[16] Rajagopalan, P., and Goodman, N., 2021, Improving the indoor air quality of residential buildings during bushfire smoke events, Climate, 9 (2), 32.

[17] Patel, S., Sankhyan, S., Boedicker, E.K., DeCarlo, P.F., Farmer, D.K., Goldstein, A.H., Katz, E.F., Nazaroff, W.W., Tian, Y., Vanhanen, J., and Vance, M.E., 2020, Indoor particulate matter during HOMEChem: Concentrations, size distributions, and exposures, Environ. Sci. Technol., 54 (12), 7107–7116.

[18] Tashakor, M., Behrooz, R.D., Asvad, S.R., and Kaskaoutis, D.G., 2022, Tracing of heavy metals embedded in indoor dust particles from the industrial city of Asaluyeh, south of Iran, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 19 (13), 7905.

[19] Safiur Rahman, M., Khan, M.D.H., Jolly, Y.N., Kabir, J., Akter, S., and Salam, A., 2019, Assessing risk to human health for heavy metal contamination through street dust in the Southeast Asian Megacity: Dhaka, Bangladesh, Sci. Total Environ., 660, 1610–1622.

[20] Amato, F., Rivas, I., Viana, M., Moreno, T., Bouso, L., Reche, C., Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M., Alastuey, A., Sunyer, J., and Querol, X., 2014, Sources of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations in primary schools, Sci. Total Environ., 490, 757–765.

[21] Jin, Y., O'Connor, D., Ok, Y.S., Tsang, D.C.W., Liu, A., and Hou, D., 2019, Assessment of sources of heavy metals in soil and dust at children's playgrounds in Beijing using GIS and multivariate statistical analysis, Environ. Int., 124, 320–328.

[22] Latif, M.T., Yong, S.M., Saad, A., Mohamad, N., Baharudin, N.H., Bin Mokhtar, M., and Mohd Tahir, N., 2014, Composition of heavy metals in indoor dust and their possible exposure: A case study of preschool children in Malaysia, Air Qual., Atmos. Health, 7 (2), 181–193.

[23] Pedersen, E.K., Bjørseth, O., Syversen, T., and Mathiesen, M., 2001, Physical changes of indoor dust caused by hot surface contact, Atmos. Environ., 35 (24), 4149–4157.

[24] Al-Momani, I.F., Attiyat, A.S., and Al-Momani, R.M., 2015, Influence of different heating systems on the bioavailable fractions of some elements in house dust, Jordan J. Chem., 10 (3), 194–204.

[25] Al-Madanat, O., Jiries, A., Batarseh, M., and Al-Nasir, F., 2017, Indoor and outdoor pollution with heavy metals in Al-Karak city, Jordan, J. Int. Environ. Appl. Sci., 12 (2), 131–139.

[26] Gul, H.K., Gullu, G., Babaei, P., Nikravan, A., Kurt-Karakus, P.B., and Salihoglu, G., 2023, Assessment of house dust trace elements and human exposure in Ankara, Turkey, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 30 (3), 7718–7735.

[27] Fadel, M., Ledoux, F., Afif, C., and Courcot, D., 2022, Human health risk assessment for PAHs, phthalates, elements, PCDD/Fs, and DL-PCBs in PM2.5 and for NMVOCs in two East-Mediterranean urban sites under industrial influence, Atmos. Pollut. Res., 13 (1), 101261.

[28] Massányi, P., Massányi, M., Madeddu, R., Stawarz, R., and Lukáč, N., 2020, Effects of cadmium, lead, and mercury on the structure and function of reproductive organs, Toxics, 8 (4), 94.

[29] Dabaibeh, R.N., 2021, Spatial distribution of heavy metals in Al-Zarqa, Jordan, Indones. J. Chem., 21 (2), 478–493.

[30] Massadeh, A.M., Al-Massaedh, A.A.T., and Kharibeh, S., 2018, Determination of selected elements in canned food sold in Jordan markets, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 25 (4), 3501–3509.

[31] Al-Massaedh, A.A., Gharaibeh, A., Radaydeh, S., and Al-Momani, I., 2018, Assessment of toxic and essential heavy metals in imported dried fruits sold in the local markets of Jordan, Eur. J. Chem., 9 (4), 394–399.

[32] Belay, K., and Abisa, Z., 2015, Developing a method for trace metal analysis in spices using spectroscopic techniques: A review, Int. J. Chem. Nat. Sci., 3 (1), 195–199.

[33] Ali, I., Burakov, A., Melezhik, A.V., Babkin, A.V., Burakova, I.V., Neskoromnaya, E.A., Galunin, E., and Tkachev, A.G., 2019, The uptake of Pb(II) metal ion in water using polyhydroquinone/graphene nanocomposite material: Kinetics, thermodynamics and mechanism studies, Adv. Mater. Technol., 4 (16), 3–12.

[34] Ali, I., Gupta, V.K., and Aboul-Enein, H.Y., 2005, Metal ion speciation and capillary electrophoresis: Application in the new millennium, Electrophoresis, 26, 3988–4002.

[35] Al-Massaedh, A.A., and Al-Momani, I., 2020, Assessment of heavy metal contamination in roadside soils along Irbid-Amman Highway, Jordan by ICP-OES, Jordan J. Chem., 15 (1), 1–12.

[36] Massadeh, A.M., and Al-Massaedh, A.A.T., 2018, Determination of heavy metals in canned fruits and vegetables sold in Jordan market, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 25 (2), 1914–1920.

[37] Alzahrani, H.R., Kumakli, H., Ampiah, E., Mehari, T., Thornton, A.J., Babyak, C.M., and Fakayode, S.O., 2017, Determination of macro, essential trace elements, toxic heavy metal concentrations, crude oil extracts and ash composition from Saudi Arabian fruits and vegetables having medicinal values, Arabian J. Chem., 10 (7), 906–913.

[38] Liu, B., Huang, F., Yu, Y., Li, X., He, Y., Gao, L., and Hu, X., 2021, Heavy metals in indoor dust across China: Occurrence, sources and health risk assessment, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 81 (1), 67–76.

[39] Isangedighi, I.A., and David, G.S., 2019, Heavy metals contamination in fish: Effects on human health, J. Aquat. Sci. Mar. Biol., 2 (4), 7–12.

[40] Ohiagu, F.O., Chikezie, P.C., Ahaneku, C.C., and Chikezie, C.M., 2022, Human exposure to heavy metals: Toxicity mechanisms and health implications, Mater. Sci. Eng., 6 (2), 78–87.

[41] Zhao, X., Li, Z., Tao, Y., Wang, D., Huang, J., Qiao, F., Lei, L., and Xing, Q., 2020, Distribution characteristics, source appointment, and health risk assessment of Cd exposure via household dust in six cities of China, Build. Environ., 172, 106728.

[42] Zhao, X., Li, Z., Wang, D., Tao, Y., Qiao, F., Lei, L., Huang, J., and Ting, Z., 2021, Characteristics, source apportionment and health risk assessment of heavy metals exposure via household dust from six cities in China, Sci. Total Environ., 762, 143126.

[43] Al-Momani, I.F., 2007, Trace elements in street and household dusts in Amman, Jordan, Soil Sediment Contam.: Int. J., 16 (5), 485–496.

[44] Abdul Wahab, N.A., Muhammad Darus, F., Isa, N., Sumari, S.M., and Muhammad Hanafi, N.F., 2012, Heavy metal concentration of settled surface dust in residential building, Malays. J. Anal. Sci., 16 (1), 18–23.

[45] Lanphear, B.P., 2015, The impact of toxins on the developing brain, Annu. Rev. Public Health, 36, 211–230.

[46] Al-Momani, I.F., and Shatnawi, W.M., 2017, Chemical characterization and source determination of trace elements in PM2.5 and PM10 from an Urban Area, Northern Jordan, Int. J. Environ. Monit. Anal., 5 (4), 103–108.

[47] Alsbou, E.M.E., and Al-Khashman, O.A., 2018, Heavy metal concentrations in roadside soil and street dust from Petra region, Jordan, Environ. Monit. Assess., 190 (1), 48.

[48] Alomary, A., El Jamal, E., Al-Momani, I., Attiyat, A., and Obeidat, S., 2013, Pb in medicinal plants from Jordan, Environ. Chem. Lett., 11 (1), 55–63.

[49] FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization), 2001, Food Additives and Contaminants, Joint Codex Alimentarius Commission, FAO/WHO Food Standards Program, ALINORM 10/12A, 1–289.

[50] VROM (Volkshuisvesting, Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieubeheer), 2000, Circular on Target Values and Intervention Values for Soil Remediation, Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and Environment, Netherlands.

[51] Iwegbue, C.M.A., Obi, G., Emoyan, O.O., Odali, E.W., Egobueze, F.E., Tesi, G.O., Nwajei, G.E., and Martincigh, B.S., 2018, Characterization of metals in indoor dusts from electronic workshops, cybercafés and offices in southern Nigeria: Implications for on-site human exposure, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 159, 342–353.

[52] DPR (Department of Petroleum Resources), 2002, Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria (Revised Edition), Department of Petroleum Resources, Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Abuja, Nigeria.

[53] Selvi, A., Rajasekar, A., Theerthagiri, J., Ananthaselvam, A., Sathishkumar, K., Madhavan, J., and Rahman, P.K., 2019, Integrated remediation processes toward heavy metal removal/recovery from various environments-A review, Front. Environ. Sci., 7, 66.

[54] Chattopadhyay, G., Lin, K.C.P., and Feitz, A.J., 2003, Household dust metal levels in the Sydney metropolitan area, Environ. Res., 93 (3), 301–307.

[55] Jadoon, W.A., Abdel-Dayem, S.M.M.A., Saqib, Z., Takeda, K., Sakugawa, H., Hussain, M., Shah, G.M., Rehman, W., and Syed, J.H., 2021, Heavy metals in urban dusts from Alexandria and Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt: Implications for human health, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 28 (2), 2007–2018.

[56] Darus, F.M., Nasir, R.A., Sumari, S.M., Ismail, Z.S., and Omar, N.A., 2012, Heavy metals composition of indoor dust in nursery schools building, Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci., 38, 169–175.

[57] Harb, M.K., Ebqa’ai, M., Al-rashidi, A., Alaziqi, B.H., Al Rashdi, M.S., and Ibrahim, B., 2015, Investigation of selected heavy metals in street and house dust from Al-Qunfudah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Environ. Earth Sci., 74 (2), 1755–1763.

[58] Rasmussen, P.E., Subramanian, K.S., and Jessiman, B.J., 2001, A multi-element profile of house dust in relation to exterior dust and soils in the city of Ottawa, Canada, Sci. Total Environ., 267 (1-3), 125–140.

[59] Wang, G., Zeng, C., Zhang, F., Zhang, Y., Scott, C.A., and Yan, X., 2017, Traffic-related trace elements in soils along six highway segments on the Tibetan Plateau: Influence factors and spatial variation, Sci. Total Environ., 581-582, 811–821.

[60] Li, Y., Fang, F., Lin, Y., Wang, Y., Kuang, Y., and Wu, M., 2020, Heavy metal contamination and health risks of indoor dust around Xinqiao Mining Area, Tongling, China, Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess.: Int. J., 26 (1), 46–56.

[61] Dingle, J.H., Kohl, L., Khan, N., Meng, M., Shi, Y.A., Pedroza-Brambila, M., Chow, C.W., and Chan, A.W.H., 2021, Sources and composition of metals in indoor house dust in a mid-size Canadian city, Environ. Pollut., 289, 117867.

[62] Aprile, F.M., and Bouvy, M., 2008, Distribution and enrichment of the heavy metals in sediments at the Tapacurá river basin, Northeastern Brazil, Braz. J. Aquat, Sci. Technol., 12 (1), 1–8.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.85062

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 428 | views : 162 | views : 91


Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Web
Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.